19 October-30 November 2020
The 51st Union World Conference On Lung Health
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E-posters
EP07-Improving TB care in children
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EP07-Improving TB care in children
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EP07-159-21-Detecting and preventing paediatric TB through systematic household contact investigations in nine sub-Saharan countriesWe describe yields in tuberculosis (TB) detection and TB preventive therapy cascades - from screening to treatment completion - obtained during an intervention supporting systematic household contact investigation of paediatric TB index cases across nine sub-Saharan countries.
Jean-Francois Lemaire

EP07-160-21-Paediatric TB detection and treatment cascade in nine sub-Saharan countries following the CaP-TB interventionWe prospectively documented retention in the paediatric tuberculosis (TB) care cascade - from screening to treatment outcomes - during a comprehensive intervention, including paediatric specific systematic symptoms screening in health facilities, increased access to Xpert MTB/RIF testing, intensified household contact investigation and treatment of drug-sensitive TB with child-friendly formulations across nine sub-Saharan countries.
Shirin Kakayeva

EP07-161-21-Increasing paediatric TB detection and treatment in private health sector in IndiaWe share findings from the intervention on integrating comprehensive paediatric tuberculosis (TB) care cascade among private healthcare facilities in India. This includes evidence from intensified case finding activities in private facilities, enhancing their access to government’s free Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostics and WHO approved child-friendly fixed dose combination (FDC) dispersible drugs.
Karun Sandeep Veesa

EP07-162-21-Training physicians in India to interpret paediatric chest radiographs according to World Health Organization research methodologyChest radiography is the standard for diagnosing paediatric lower respiratory infections in low- and middle-income countries. Research in India required training local physicians to interpret chest radiographs following an updated World Health Organization interpretation method. We described the methodology for training Indian physicians and evaluated the training’s effectiveness.
Eric D McCollum

EP07-163-21-Care cascade of contact screening and preventive therapy among children under five in high-burden districts of NepalContact screening and provision of preventive therapy for under 5s as one intervention to prevent childhood TB in 38 high-burden districts of Nepal from 2017. Care cascade constructed in this paper focuses on contract tracing done during the period of March 2018-Dec 2019.
Suvesh Kumar Shrestha

EP07-164-21-Paediatric latent TB infection cascade of care from the TB and Leprosy Free Majuro community mass screening projectTB and Leprosy Free Majuro was a tuberculosis/latent tuberculosis infection (TB/LTBI) mass screening campaign implemented by the Republic of the Marshall Islands' Ministry of Health, on Majuro Atoll, from June to November 2018. It offered screening and treatment for LTBI in children 0-14 years old with varying success depending on age cohort.
Rachel Dwilow

EP07-165-21-Improvement of screening for childhood TB in Senegal coupled with screening for malnutrition: pilot study in the health districts of Thiès and Tivaouane, SénégalWe carried out operational research on the integration of the two tuberculosis (TB) and malnutrition control programmes to improve the screening of these diseases in children aged 0 to 14. This research developed by OMS/TDR shows that it can help the programme to improve the screening of childhood TB in Senegal.
Nafissatou Oumar Toure

EP07-166-21-Barriers to uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy among eligible child household contacts of TB patients in Southern NigeriaThis research explores the barriers to the uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy among eligible child contacts (under 6 years of age) of TB patients in six states of Southern Nigeria. Study findings highlight both patients and health systems factors.
Chukwuka Alphonsus

EP07-167-21-The state of paediatric, rifampicin-resistant TB in Khayelitsha, South AfricaOutcomes for paediatrics who receive rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) treatment are excellent. Despite universal access to Xpert in South Africa, the frequency of paediatric cases detected has not increased, suggesting that diagnosis of RR-TB in paediatrics remains a challenge. Efforts to improve case detection, contact assessment and appropriate treatment initiation are urgently needed.
Johnny Daniels

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E-posters
EP06-TB: data matters
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EP06-TB: data matters
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EP06-152-21-Assessment of TB underreporting by level of reporting system in Lagos, NigeriaAssessment of tuberculosis (TB) underreporting by level of reporting system, Nigeria. It was a quantitative, descriptive study using secondary data from an inventory study on TB reporting knowledge, attitude and behaviour conducted in 2017 in Lagos State to assess TB underreporting by type and level of health facilities, including associated factors.  
Mustapha Gidado

EP06-153-21-Improving TB treatment outcomes through effective linkage of transfer out patientsThe transfer out tool proved to be an effective strategy in referral and linkage for all tuberculosis (TB) patients who prefer continuum of care at facilities of their convenience. TB control programmes should consider adopting this tool and roll it out to all TB sites to improve quality of care. 
Stella Omulo

EP06-154-21-Nationwide surveillance of emerging isoniazid resistance after implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy for TB contactsAlthough population isoniazid resistance does not increase due to isoniazid preventive therapy, consider to provide isoniazid resistance as a priority of developing rapid drug susceptibility test for individuals who have developed TB after isoniazid preventive therapy can further advance propagation of prevention programme with trust.
Pei-Chun Chan

EP06-155-21-Review of the epidemiological mathematical modelling literature to inform TB vaccination development and strategiesMathematical models provide valuable information to aid the development of tuberculosis (TB) vaccines and vaccination strategies. Evaluating the impact of different vaccine characteristics in varied epidemiological settings such as exploring age, spatial hotspot and risk group targeting, as well as accounting for HIV, multidrug-resistance and population endemicity, can inform country-level implementation of novel TB vaccines.
Rebecca A. Clark

EP06-156-21-Strengthening hospital DOTS linkage using ad hoc staff to find missing TB cases: The Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital ExperienceAminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) is the largest tertiary facility in Kano state with an average daily hospital attendance of 862 patients. We sought to improve facility based active case finding by engaging trained ad hoc staff and deploying them across service delivery points over a period of time.
Mamman Bajehson

EP06-157-21-Incorporating patient reporting patterns to evaluate geographically targeted TB interventions in Dhaka, BangladeshTuberculosis (TB) is geographically heterogeneous and geographic targeting can improve the impact and efficiency of TB interventions. However, standard TB notification data may not sufficiently capture this heterogeneity. Better understanding of patient reporting behaviour may improve our ability to use notifications to appropriately target interventions.
Isabella Gomes

EP06-158-21-Lessons from a data quality assessment of TB notifications in Zambia: the case of under notification in a national TB programmeNational tuberculosis (TB) programmes should conduct periodic data quality assessments (DQAs) to validate notifications data. Findings will be very useful in designing future programming and implementation. The findings underscore the urgent need to strengthen the linkage to care. National TB programmes could potentially increase the TB treatment coverage by restoring data management systems.
Patrick Lungu

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OA-03-Optimising lung health beyond TB
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OA-03-Optimising lung health beyond TB
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11:00 - 11:05: Introduction


11:05 - 11:13: OA-03-514-21-Clinical predictors of outpatient child pneumonia mortality and development of a severity of illness score for outpatient care in rural Bangladesh – a multisite study Identifying children at higher risk of pneumonia mortality during outpatient care may improve outcomes. We explored clinical predictors of child pneumonia mortality and developed a predictive model applicable to outpatient care in rural Bangladesh.

Eric D McCollum

11:13 - 11:21: OA-03-515-21-Pneumococcal serotype epidemiology in Botswana following the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine We endeavoured to describe temporal trends in pneumococcal serotype colonisation among children in Botswana following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13). Understanding how the introduction of PCV-13 affects pneumococcal serotype epidemiology is essential to optimising the next generation of pneumococcal vaccines and reducing childhood mortality.

Sweta M. Patel

11:21 - 11:29: OA-03-516-21-Mycobacteria and other acid fast organism among presumptive pulmonary TB patients in Kaduna state, Nigeria Tuberculosis is a leading public health problem in Nigeria. Hence, there is a need for continuous characterisation of mycobacteria in order to obtain current data that will aid ongoing diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to phenotypically characterise mycobacteria isolates recovered from patients with smear-positive samples.

Isiyaku Ahmadu

11:29 - 11:37: OA-03-517-21-A novel quantitative tool for rapid monitoring of Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary disease treatment response Mycobacterium abscessus is the most common, rapid growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) causing NTM pulmonary disease (PD). A quantitative treatment monitoring tool has been developed to follow M. abscessus PD treatment response. This treatment monitoring tool does not require sample decontamination, with results available on the same day.

Daniela Alferes de Lima

11:37 - 11:45: OA-03-518-21-How does exposure to fine particulate matter in Malawi vary by gender, exposure source and cooking characteristics? Fine grain data from an ethnography-linked exposure study In low-income settings such as Malawi, continued use of biomass fuels for cooking causes frequent exposure to high levels of air pollution, strongly associated with a range of cardiorespiratory pathologies. We use personal exposure monitoring to describe differential PM2.5 exposures in this setting by gender, exposure source and cooking features.

Sepeedeh Saleh

11:45 - 11:53: OA-03-519-21-Pulmonary function testing and predictive equations in a healthy adult population in Mbeya, Tanzania Despite the increasing importance of spirometry in research projects as well as in clinical medicine, there is a lack of lung function reference values available for the African population. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 343 adults, in Mbeya, Tanzania, to obtain local predictive equations and compared them to GLI.

Rebekka Wenzel

11:53 - 12:01: OA-03-520-21-Availability of diagnostic services and essential medicines for non-communicable respiratory diseases in African countries The study aimed to explore the availability of diagnostic spirometry and essential medicines for asthma and COPD in African countries. Data was collected by a questionnaire given to attendees at PATS MECOR and IMPALA meeting. Primary data on availability was gathered and reasons behind the challenges of non-availability were explored.

Catherine Plum

12:01 - 12:09: OA-03-521-21-Chronic lung diseases remain under-prioritised in Africa despite their growing burden: findings from a lung health policy analysis Despite the growing burden of chronic lung diseases (CLDs) in Africa, investment in research, policy and programmes is lacking. Understanding regional and national-level lung health policy environments (via policy desk review and key informant interviews) is critical to inform generation, and effective, uptake of relevant and responsive lung health research.

Emma Heneine

12:09 - 12:20: Q&A


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EP12-Approaches to paediatric TB prevention, diagnosis and treatment
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EP12-Approaches to paediatric TB prevention, diagnosis and treatment
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EP12-208-22-Comparison of neurocognitive assessment in children with TB Meningitis and healthy controls in Pune, IndiaTuberculosis meningitis (TBM) in children affects the brain adversely and results into neurological deficit. The study used The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), a well-established measure, to assess neurocognitive impairment among children with TBM before treatment initiation and compared with age-sex matched, healthy controls in India.
Smita Nimkar

EP12-209-22-Effect of community-based interventions on childhood TB treatment outcomes in hard-to-reach areas of Southern NigeriaTreatment Success Rate (TSR) is an important World Health Organziation treatment outcome indicator that measures the quality of tuberculosis (TB) services. We report the effect of a community-based intervention on childhood TB treatment outcomes in hard-to-reach areas of Southern Nigeria.
Okechukwu Ezeakile

EP12-210-22-Fine needle aspiration biopsy of peripheral lymph nodes in children in a high TB incidence setting: practical experience in a referral hospitalPeripheral lymphadenopathy is common in children. We identified all children (<13 years) over a two-year period who had fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) done at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, and determined how well FNAB performed in routine practice in a high TB burden setting and whether children were appropriately managed.
H. Simon Schaaf

EP12-211-22-The adverse effects of prolonged home isolation on adolescents with TB in Lima, Peru: a qualitative studyPeru’s Ministry of Health mandates two months of home isolation for patients with tuberculosis (TB), despite data showing the majority become non-infectious in less time. Prolonged home isolation may negatively impact adolescents’ development. Peruvian study workers interviewed 34 adolescents with pulmonary TB and 15 health providers working in TB care.
Victoria Oliva Rapoport

EP12-212-22-Feasibility of testing paediatric samples for TB diagnosis: implications of the pre-analytical phase, lessons learned and challengesPaediatric tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant cause of death globally, mainly due to difficulties in diagnosis.  Laboratory confirmation is only obtained in a minority of cases due to the difficulty in obtaining samples. The main objective of this analysis was to evaluate the feasibility of a multisample, paediatric TB diagnostic approach.
Neide Gomes

EP12-213-22-A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for the diagnosis of TB Meningitis and lymph node TB in childrenWe will discuss the results of a systematic review on the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis and lymph node tuberculosis (TB) in children with signs and symptoms of TB.
Alexander Kay

EP12-214-22-Paediatric TB care cascade: an assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice among healthcare providers in Pune district, IndiaThe dependency on sputum for diagnosis and the difficulty of getting it from younger children is the key challenge in the diagnosis of paediatric tuberculosis. Household contact screening and isoniazid preventive therapy are not being implemented effectively due to lack of awareness on the part of healthcare providers, especially in the private sector.
Jitesh Kuwatada

EP12-215-22-Knowledge, attitudes and practices around childhood TB among healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa and South-East AsiaWe share the results of a Knowledge-Attitudes-Practices (KAP) survey conducted among healthcare workers (HCWs) at district level in five resource-limited countries. Our findings show great variability in awareness and experience of childhood tuberculosis (TB) case management and highlights potential barriers and facilitators to the decentralisation of childhood TB diagnosis.
Basant Joshi

EP12-216-22-Improving child TB notification through innovative case finding approaches in hard-to-reach areas of Delta State, NigeriaDespite the high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in Delta State, Nigeria, the child TB proportion of all TB cases has remained low. A multipronged intervention was implemented in quarter three of 2018 to address the persistent barriers. Implementing a similar strategy nationwide in Nigeria could have a major public health impact.
Ufuoma Aduh

EP12-217-22-Progress towards updated policy guidance for World Health Organization- recommended best practices in paediatric TB/RR-TB careResults from the #StepUpforTB 2020 study show promising adoption of World Health Organization policy guidance for optimal paediatric tuberculosis (TB)/rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) and latent TB infection management.  Evaluating implementation of national paediatric TB/RR-TB guidelines in routine clinical care is the next step to ensuring children and adolescents benefit from best practices.
Pilar Ustero

EP12-218-22-Reasons and routes of admission among hospitalised children and adolescents with rifampicin-resistant TB receiving treatment in South Africa’s ‘injectable-free era’Children and adolescents with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) are often hospitalised during treatment. A South African policy released in September 2018 recommended injectable-free treatment for everyone with RR-TB. We describe reasons for hospital admission among individuals <16 years of age admitted for RR-TB treatment in the injectable-free era.
Juli Switala

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EP18-Scaling up TB preventive therapy: it is about time!
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EP18-Scaling up TB preventive therapy: it is about time!
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EP18-269-22-TB contact investigation in 17 municipalities of Uganda: bringing TB screening to the household via coalition with communitiesA half of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Uganda are missed, leading to continuous transmission in a system where case finding is passive. Community-led contact tracing (CI) was done to ensure early diagnosis and increasing access.  The results demonstrate that engaging community players in designing and implementing CI is effective. Community-led visiting is recommended.
Paddy Busulwa

EP18-270-22-Breakthrough TB among people living with HIV on isoniazid preventive therapy in ZambiaUse of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) has proven effective in the fight against latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and prevention of progression to active TB disease in people living with HIV. However, it has been observed that there are patients who develop TB while on IPT and usually in the first month of treatment.
Sarah Nyangu

EP18-271-22-TB preventive treatment: global targets and progress to dateAt the United Nations High-Level Meeting on tuberculosis (TB) in 2018, Member States committed to provide TB preventive treatment (TPT) to at least 30 million people between 2018 and 2022. In this presentation, we report global progress and recent trends on the main indicators for the programmatic management of TPT.
Saskia Den Boon

EP18-272-22-Understanding barriers to latent TB treatment in people living with HIV in Cambodia: results from the KAP survey and facility assessment from the OPTICAM studyTuberculosis preventive therapy (TPT) coverage for people living with HIV is low (<30%) in Cambodia. Barriers from healthcare workers and facilities to prescribing (TPT) were assessed, highlighting the need for targeted training on TPT focusing on systematic TB screening, side effects and drug-drug interactions. Improving TPT drug supplies is essential to access.
Jennifer Campbell

EP18-273-22-TB preventive therapy among contacts above 5 years in line with United Nations High-level mission commitment: the journey so far in NigeriaThe new policy to place >5years (including adults) on TB preventive therapy (TPT) was recently adopted by countries at the United Nations High-Level Meeting. Gradual uptake of TPT among this populations is observed. The best method to ensure increased completion rate among this population is the use of a shorter TPT regimen.
Obioma Chijioke-Akaniro

EP18-274-22-Prevalence of latent TB infection among household contacts of TB patients in a low-resource, high burden TB/HIV settingThe proportion of interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) positive household contacts (HHCs) in Uganda that would require tuberculosis preventive therapy was unknown. In early 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 352 HHCs in the four regions of the country. Of those that participated, 32.7% had a positive IGRA test result.
Simon Muchuro

EP18-275-22-TB preventive treatment cascade among household contacts of people with TB in Western Uganda (October 2017–September 2018)Household tuberculosis (TB) contacts are at high risk for TB infection. People living HIV and children aged <5 years are at high risk for progression to TB disease and prioritised for TB preventive treatment (TPT). We examined the TPT cascade among household contacts following TB contact tracing, including HIV testing.
Monita R. Patel

EP18-276-22-Good proportion of household contact children under 5 years were TB screened but not getting preventive therapy in two regions of EthiopiaThis study assessed the extent of household contact screening and tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy implementation in two regions of Ethiopia - SNNPR and Addis Ababa. The contact investigation was conducted for contacts of bacteriologically-confirmed index pulmonary TB patients and the TB preventive therapy was provided for eligible children aged under 5 years.
Abdulsemed Umar

EP18-277-22-Implementation and scale-up of TB preventive treatment among people living with HIV, South Sudan, 2018–2020Tuberculosis preventive treatment (TPT) decreases tuberculosis incidence and mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV). In South Sudan, staff from the Ministry of Health and the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief overcame barriers to TPT implementation among PLHIV during 2018–2020.
Dennis Kenyi Lodiongo

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OA-19-Histories of success: improving TB and latent TB infection care
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OA-19-Histories of success: improving TB and latent TB infection care
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15:00 - 15:05: Introduction


15:05 - 15:13: OA-19-619-22-Utility of stool CBNAAT in the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary TB in India This study was conducted in New Delhi, India. It evaluated the utility of the stool CBNAAT test in paediatric pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Results of stool CBNAAT were in near perfect agreement with Gastric aspirate CBNAAT results. This specimen could help in achieving microbiological confirmation in peripheral areas with a shortage of trained staff.

Anurag Agarwal

15:13 - 15:21: OA-19-620-22-Improving TB treatment outcomes: the role of the quality improvement approach: a case from Nairobi City County, Kenya Quality improvement (QI) plays a critical role towards attainment of the End TB Strategy goals, leveraging on already existing systems. This intervention demonstrates sustainable team-driven strategies that adopt a QI approach towards improvement of tuberculosis (TB) outcomes in the highest TB-burden county of Kenya.

Evelyn Nganga

15:21 - 15:29: OA-19-622-22-Use of intravenous isoniazid and ethambutol administration in patients with new sputum-positive, drug-susceptible pulmonary TB with tuberculous meningoencephalitis and HIV co-infection Fifty-four patients with TB-meningoencephalitis (TM) and HIV co-infection, were enrolled in this study. In TB-TM with HIV, intravenous isoniazid and ethambutol treatment was more effective than oral isoniazid and ethambutol at two months of intensive treatment. In addition, the mortality rate was lower in intravenously isoniazid and ethambutol treatment than oral.

Dmytro Butov

15:29 - 15:37: OA-19-623-22-When facility-based detection is not enough: increasing TB case detection through a social and behaviour change strategy in Nigeria The United States Agency for International Development's SHOPS Plus project created a social and behaviour change strategy, using geographic information systems (GIS) data, to hold community-led events in high tuberculosis (TB) burden communities where local healthcare providers and community leaders educate community members to seek care for TB symptoms and offer free TB screening and testing.

Ayodele Iroko

15:37 - 15:45: OA-19-624-22-Treatment uptake in people with TB detected by active case finding in Cà Mau Province, Viet Nam In the context of community-wide screening in rural province Cà Mau, Viet Nam, we estimate the proportion of tuberculosis screen-positive individuals who participate in each stage of the treatment cascade.

Boi Khanh Luu

15:45 - 15:53: OA-19-625-22-Analysis of large, patient-level dataset to predict outcome of treatment for patients with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) treatment is challenging and frequently leads to poor outcomes. NIAID TB Portals programme - an international collaboration focusing on DR-TB - collects, annotates and analyses patient-level data from multiple hospitals. We present a comprehensive machine learning analysis of patient characteristics, across diverse domains, associated with treatment outcome.

Qinlu Wang

15:53 - 16:20: Q&A


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E-posters
EP25-Lung health across the lifespan
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EP25-Lung health across the lifespan
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EP25-334-23-Effectiveness of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against radiographic pneumonia in children in rural Bangladesh: a case-control studyWe conducted a matched case-control study between 2015-2017 using clinic and community controls in Sylhet, Bangladesh. Overall, adjusted vaccine effectiveness using clinic controls was 21.4% (95%CI,-0.2%, 38.4%) for >2 PCV10 (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) doses and among 3-11 month olds was 47.3% (10.5%, 69.0%) for three doses.
Salahuddin Ahmed

EP25-335-23-It’s not TB but what could it be? Abnormalities on chest X-rays from the 2016 Kenya national TB prevalence surveyThe prevalence of diseases other than tuberculosis (TB) detected during chest X-ray (CXR) screening is unknown, yet it is important to provide patient-centred care during screening programmes. This study quantifies and characterises additional non-TB abnormalities that require further clinical input. These abnormalities may go undetected when using computer aided diagnosis.
Brenda Mungai

EP25-336-23-Supplemental oxygen in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi: a prospective cohort study of patients admitted to medical wardsOxygen is a potentially life saving drug that is often in limited supply in sub-Saharan Africa. This prospective cohort study explores the time course of hypoxaemia and response to oxygen therapy in a teaching hospital in Malawi. It aims to better rationalise the distribution of oxygen therapy in resource-limited settings.  
Helen Thomson

EP25-337-23-Searching for microbiome predictors of poor outcomes among infants with respiratory syncytial virus-associated pneumonia in BotswanaThe upper respiratory microbiome is associated with susceptibility to lower respiratory viral infections, but its impact on clinical outcomes in viral pneumonia is unknown. We sought to identify respiratory microbiome related factors associated with poor outcomes among children aged 1-23 months hospitalised with respiratory syncytial virus-associated pneumonia in Botswana.
Sweta M. Patel

EP25-338-23-Integration of obstructive lung disease diagnostics into primary care in limited-resource settings: is there a cost advantage?In resource-scarce settings, systems of patient referrals from primary to secondary care is absent. Specialists handle management and diagnosis of respiratory illnesses which leads to cost inefficiencies. This abstract compares the costs of integrating diagnosis and management systems of obstructive lung diseases within primary care to the standard of care.
Rahma Altaf

EP25-339-23-Predictive value of pulse oximetry for mortality among infants and children in rural Malawi presenting to primary care with World Health Organization-defined pneumoniaThe impact of pulse oximetry on mortality during primary care pneumonia management in African children is unknown. We sought to address this gap by evaluating paediatric pneumonia case fatality when applying World Health Organization guidelines with, and without, oximetry in Malawi.
Eric D McCollum

EP25-340-23-Association between fine particulate matter air pollution and emergency room visits for respiratory illnesses among adults in Karachi, PakistanIn 2018, the average air pollution in Karachi, Pakistan, was poor. In a country with weak healthcare infrastructure, the impact of air pollution on respiratory health and hospitalisation may be severe. This study explores the association between air pollution and risk of emergency room visit, within this setting.
Arman Majidulla

EP25-341-23-Syndromic diagnoses and management of patients presenting to health facilities in four provinces of Viet NamThe study used a syndromic approach to evaluate the prevalence of common respiratory conditions, and the treatment provided, among patients presenting with respiratory symptoms at four levels of health facilities in Viet Nam. 
Erick Wan-Chun Huang

EP25-342-23-Pulmonary function testing and predictive equations in child population in Mbeya, TanzaniaDespite the high burden of respiratory diseases, spirometry reference values for children are available for only a few African countries. We have performed a cross-sectional study with 284 children in Mbeya, Tanzania, to obtain local prediction equations and compare them with GLI equations.
Elimina Siyame

EP25-343-23-Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of rapidly growing mycobacteria respiratory isolates: a 10-year experience in a mycobacterial research centre in ColombiaTreatment of non-tuberculous rapidly growing (NT-RGM) mycobacteria is challenging as it requires multidrug therapy with low success rates. This study collected data on NT-RGM respiratory isolates during 2010 to 2019. Results showed high resistance levels especially with doxycycline. Moxifloxacin demonstrates poor activity against M. abscessus and clarithromycin susceptibility profile was low.
Laura Victoria

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EP34-TB: from bench to the bedside
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EP34-TB: from bench to the bedside
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EP34-426-24-Sensitivity of diagnostic tests in people with abnormal chest radiographsTo increase the detection of tuberculosis (TB) cases in high burden communities, we piloted an active case finding intervention using mobile X-ray vans. We describe the diagnostic characteristics of the individuals diagnosed with TB with this intervention.
Daniela Vanesa Puma Abarca

EP34-427-24-Targeted intervention to strengthen treatment monitoring using follow-up sputum testing among ambulatory, pulmonary multidrug-resistant TB patients in Xi`an, western ChinaTargeted education, counselling and follow-up support to strengthen treatment monitoring, through increased uptake of required, regularly scheduled sputum testing among ambulatory, pulmonary multidrug-resistant TB patients, managed by Xi’an Chest Hospital, Xi`an City, western China
Hui Luo

EP34-428-24-Using Xpert among symptomatic people with negative sputum smear microscopy results in Maharasthra: a key to identifying missing TB patientsImproving access to Xpert services among smear-negative cases with abnormal chest X-ray leads to an increase in notification. One hundred and sixty-seven individuals with a negative smear result on microscopy, but with an abnormal chest X-ray, were not initiated on treatment. When tested on Xpert their result was positive, leading to an increase in notification of MTB cases.
Ashvini Vyas

EP34-429-24-Novel RNA markers of anti-TB treatment responseCurrent measurements of drug efficacy in tuberculosis (TB) clinical trials rely on the cultivation of the pathogen where the effect of sterilising agents on the persister population is unmeasurable. Our novel pre-16S/16S rRNA model represents an innovative measure of drug efficacy and potential to accelerate clinical trials of TB drugs.
Evelin Dombay

EP34-430-24-Low AUC/MIC target attainment of moxifloxacin during treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant TB in ChinaTherapeutic drug monitoring of key multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) drugs aims to ensure sufficient drug exposure in order to improve treatment outcome. In this study including patients with MDR-TB in China, we explored the target attainment of drug exposure in relation to individual minimum inhibitory concentration for moxifloxacin, compared to previously suggested targets.
Lina Davies Forsman

EP34-431-24-Effective stock management of GeneXpert test cartridges in health facilities for uninterrupted TB laboratory diagnosis in three urban districts in UgandaThe World Health Organization recommends Xpert MTB/RIF assay as an initial tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic test. In Uganda there are 237 GeneXpert sites. However, testing is affected by stock-outs of cartridges. The United States Agency for International Development's Defeat TB project worked in facilities to reduce stock-outs through weekly review of stock cards, cartridge re-distributions and monthly physical counts.
Ronald Mangeni

EP34-432-24-The efficacy of anti-TB therapy and treatment outcome are modulated by the magnitude of bactericidal activity on the rest of respiratory microbiomeOur findings show that the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis therapy is modulated by the extent of its action on the rest of the respiratory microbiome.  Conversion to culture negative by week eight of treatment was associated with significant reduction of Streptococcus and overall microbiome diversity.
Wilber Sabiiti

EP34-433-24-Impact of the human resource support scheme and sample transportation system on GeneXpert services in selected states in Nigeria: the KNCV/Challenge TB experienceNigeria experienced huge demand for GeneXpert testing following adoption as the initial diagnostic test for tuberculosis (TB). Despite the installation of 398 machines, utilisation rates remained low. To improve utilisation of machines, KNCV and the Challenge TB project, through United States Agency for International Development funding, implemented the GeneXpert human resource support scheme and courier model of sample transportation.
Nkiru Nwokoye

EP34-434-24-Synthesis and evaluation of new compounds efficient against Mycobacterium TB isolates circulating in a high burden country, Russian FederationMycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs continue to circulate and present a global problem. Here, we performed synthesis of new compounds containing 2-aminobutanol moiety and tested their efficiency on M. tuberculosis clinical isolates from Russia, a high burden country for multi- and extensively drug-resistant TB.
Anna Vyazovaya

EP34-435-24-Improvement of elimination rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum among patients receiving a bedaquiline and/or linezolid- containing regimens in TanzaniaWe present how molecular bacterial load assay (TB-MBLA) was used to test whether the killing of M. tuberculosis in adult patients, with either drug-resistant or susceptible tuberculosis, depends on the treatment regimens. 
Peter M. Mbelele

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Channel 1
OA-36-The role of pharmacies in the TB cascade of care
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query_builder 12:30 - 13:50 | Event time (GMT+2)
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OA-36-The role of pharmacies in the TB cascade of care
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12:30 - 12:35: Introduction


12:35 - 12:43: OA-36-721-24-Improving TB case finding through pharmacies using digital tools in Manila City, Philippines Programmatic implementation demonstrating the path of how pharmacy professionals in the community contribute to tuberculosis (TB) case finding through an e-referral tool in the SwipeRx mobile app. It converted a long and tedious paper-based process into a convenient and efficient referral system.

Eden Mendoza-Hisey

12:43 - 12:51: OA-36-722-24-Improving TB preventive therapy data quality in Ethiopia High quality, patient-level data are essential to advance tuberculosis (TB) prevention for people living with HIV. We present results of a data quality improvement initiative for TB preventive therapy initiation/completion, as well as viral load status in electronic medical records, for tracking Ethiopia’s progress toward TB-HIV epidemic control

Biniyam Eskinder

12:51 - 12:59: OA-36-723-24-Treating viral infections and TB with antibiotics in Viet Nam: is there any financial benefits for community pharmacies? This study evaluated the costs of pharmaceutical management of viral infections and tuberculosis in four provinces of Viet Nam using simulated patient survey data. The findings encourage policies that reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics for viral illnesses in order to reduce patients’ out-of-pocket expense and improve the quality of care in Viet Nam.

Tho Dang

12:59 - 13:07: OA-36-724-24-Engaging private sector drug retailers in Nigeria’s effort to improve TB case identification: screening and diagnostic gaps from mystery client survey in two states Using a mystery client survey methodology, this study examines trained drug retailers’ ability to appropriately identify and manage presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients in urban Nigeria. Though results reveal minimal unauthorised dispensing of TB drugs, providers missed opportunities for screening and often failed to refer or initiate sputum collection for TB diagnosis.

Sophie Faye

13:07 - 13:15: OA-36-725-24-Exploring the attitudes and practices of pharmacy professionals towards dispensing national TB programme-provided fixed-dosed combinations While fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) for tuberculosis (TB) have been recommended as the standard treatment, Indonesia’s private TB market is dominated by first line, single-formulation drugs. This digital, cross-sectional study explored the pharmacy professional practices and attitudes toward dispensing national TB programme-provided FDCs to increase its availability for patients through pharmacy channels.

Vania Gones

13:15 - 13:23: OA-36-726-24-Assessing antibiotic sales for presumptive and multidrug-resistant TB patients by community pharmacies in Viet Nam: a standardised patients survey The inappropriate use of antibiotics has been a key driver of antimicrobial resistance. We evaluated antibiotics sales in community pharmacies within Viet Na, using a standardised patient survey, for standardised patients presenting with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB.

Shukry Zawahir

13:23 - 13:31: OA-36-727-24-The impact of patent medicine vendors in increasing TB case detection among hard-to-reach dwellers in selected districts in Nasarawa State, Nigeria Patent medicine vendors (PMVs) remains a feature of the informal health sector in Nigeria. Previous studies among patients with chronic cough revealed that 60% of respondents seek first level care from the PMVs, hence engaging PMVs promises increased tuberculosis detection. This abstract presents results of our PMV intervention in Nigeria.

Maxwell Onuoha

13:31 - 13:50: Q&A


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SS-10-Role of new age technologies of artificial intelligence and machine learning in pandemic of TB and Covid 19 – lessons learnt
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query_builder 18:15 - 19:45 | Event time (GMT+2)
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SS-10-Role of new age technologies of artificial intelligence and machine learning in pandemic of TB and Covid 19 – lessons learnt
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Organised by: DeepTek Inc.

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and tuberculosis (TB) are two key challenges that have severely unsettled the world. We focus on the role of digital chest X-ray and High-Resolution CT chest for screening.  Artificial Intelligence (AI) enabled, instant triage and smart reporting ensures fast turn-around times for resource constrained units. Innovating TB screening in times of COVID-19 pandemic can help deal with the two challenges in one setting. Expert panelists from leading hospitals, governmental organizations, NGO’s share their valuable experiences to showcase how AI is a force multiplier for public health screening.
Target audience: government bodies, non- profit organizations/ non- government organizations, foundations/trusts, hospitals

18:15 - 18:20: Introduction


18:20 - 18:35: Our experience in COVID-19 diagnosis from Mumbai India using artificial intelligence augmented radiological imaging to improve turnaround time of reporting. Dr Patkar will discuss the role of AI in busy tertiary care setups reorganised into designated COVIDd Care centers due to enhanced number of cases. How Hospitals can benefit by the value add created by AI and enhance patient throughput.

Deepak Patkar

18:35 - 18:50: High volume tertiary care COVID-19 instant triage and response using Machine learning and smart structured reporting Role of AI in Diagnosis of Pandemics and Corona Virus Like scenarios. The Present value of disruptive innovations. Considering the looming health concern of COVID-19, how can AI and Disruptive healthcare innovators partner with hospitals, research organisations and Government work on opportunities for early diagnosis to move beyond assessing the illness by clinical symptoms. AI radiology can deploy the tools and algorithms to encourage early intervention and monitor complications preventing high morbidity. It would be very useful to humanity if the stakeholders in current crisis with present affected population can their clinical data, learnings, knowledge to help co create a fast prototype to market and pre-empt future pandemic panic. Are we mature to share the learnings?

Avinash Nanivadekar

18:50 - 19:05: How resource constrained economies are using low cost imaging and AI for TB screening. Co-testing for TB and COVID-19, is this a reality? The world was already facing the slow pandemic of TB, when COVID-19 stuck. The global target for TB elimination is set at 2030 and India has set the target of TB elimination by 2025. How do these targets match up in the era of COVID-19? Can new age technologies support in keeping these targets intact?

Akash Dey

19:05 - 19:20: Prospects of use of artificial intelligence in national TB elimination programme Services of National TB elimination Programme got impacted due to COVID-19 pandemic in terms of decline in notification etc. NTEP have undertaken various initiatives to reclaim lost notifications including policy of bidirectional screening for TB and COVID simultaneously.
COVID-19 have provided an opportunity to address all respiratory ailments in comprehensive, synergistic fashion. It may augment response, save resources more over may contribute to health system strengthening.
Use of Artificial intelligence in various components of programme specially diagnostics provide an opportunity to deal with TB & COVID in comprehensive manner.
Application of AI in radiological screening for TB, COVID and other respiratory infections is in tandem of broader principles of Pulmonary Approach to Lung Health (PAL) and may significantly contribute to Health system strengthening. It may equip health system for future respiratory outbreaks.

Sandeep Bharaswadkar

19:20 - 19:35: Computer-aided reading (CAR) software for TB screening: learnings from Viet Nam This presentation will highlight the community-based CXR screening which FIT and partners have conducted in Viet Nam and the CAR evaluations which have been conducted with the resultant data.  This will include a landscape analysis for 13 different CAR software, a training and evaluation scheme for a CAR software program to triage normal images away from human read and an assessment of additional/marginal yields of TB from sputum collection based on CAR results.

Andrew Codlin

19:35 - 19:45: Q&A session


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