19 October-1 December 2020
The 51st Union World Conference On Lung Health


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Channel 1
OA-01-TB preventive therapy in HIV
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OA-01-TB preventive therapy in HIV
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11:00 - 11:05: Introduction

11:05 - 11:13: OA-01-500-21-Isoniazid preventive therapy interruptions and TB among people living with HIV in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is a critical prevention intervention for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in high tuberculosis (TB) burden settings, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. However, isoniazid shortages result in frequent IPT interruptions among PLHIV. We analysed data from the integrated HIV/AIDS project in Haut Katangato to understand potential impact of isoniazid interruptions.

Ibou Thior

11:13 - 11:21: OA-01-501-21-The effect of antenatal isoniazid preventive therapy on birth outcomes in western Kenya Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces risk for tuberculosis (TB) disease in people living with HIV and AIDS. However, there is conflicting data on maternal IPT safety in pregnancy related to birth outcomes. We evaluated programmatic data in Kisumu, Kenya, to assess birth outcomes among women with, and without, antenatal IPT exposure.

Elizabeth Quincer

11:21 - 11:29: OA-01-502-21-Birth outcomes of pregnant women exposed to isoniazid preventive therapy Tuberculosis (TB) is associated with increased risk of death and morbidity among HIV-positive pregnant women. Antiretroviral therapy and isoniazid preventive therapy can reduce mortality rates among HIV-positive pregnant women in high burden settings. Findings suggest that IPT can be safely used during the second and third trimester of pregnancy.

Sikhethiwe Masuku

11:29 - 11:37: OA-01-503-21-Isoniazid preventive therapy added to ART to prevent TB disease: an individual participant data meta-analysis Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We conducted an individual, participant data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to estimate the effect of IPT with antiretroviral therapy to prevent TB and death among PLHIV across subgroups by sex, CD4 count and immune sensitisation to TB.

Jennifer Ross

11:37 - 11:45: OA-01-504-21-Impact of TB preventive therapy on TB incidence among persons living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya (2015–2019) People living with HIV (PLHIV) have a high tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity rate. TB preventive treatment (TPT) significantly reduces TB incidence among PLHIV. We analysed five-year, HIV programme data to determine TB incidence and relative risk among PLHIV who did or did not receive TPT.

Herman Weyenga

11:45 - 11:53: OA-01-505-21-Comparing IsoScreen results and self-reported isoniazid preventative therapy adherence among HIV-positive pregnant women in South Africa This abstract describes a comparison of self-reported, isoniazid preventative therapy adherence (IPT) and adherence as measured by the IsoScreen urine test, among HIV-positive women who initiated IPT during the iThamby study, at six sites in three provinces of South Africa.  The IsoScreen test was conducted across multiple study visits.

Tebogo Sole

11:53 - 12:01: OA-01-506-21-Suboptimal adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy using urine biomarker assessment in children living with HIV: association with viral suppression and age Children living with HIV (CLHIV) are more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease. With optimal adherence, isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the risk of TB by 60%. We assessed adherence to IPT in a prospective cohort of 100 CLHIV using caregiver or child self-report pill counts and urine INH biomarkers.

Dickens Onyango

12:01 - 12:12: Q&A

EP11-TB: HIV and diabetes comorbidities
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EP11-TB: HIV and diabetes comorbidities
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All E-posters are accessible via the "E-posters" section of the conference platform until 30 November.

EP11-197-22-Implementation of a mHealth strategy to increase linkage to and engagement in HIV care among people with TB and substance use in Irkutsk, SiberiaWe implemented a mobile health intervention designed to improve linkage and engagement in care for a tuberculosis/HIV co-infected, substance-using population in Irkutsk, Siberia. We evaluated the impact of this intervention, called MOCT (Russian for ‘bridge’), on various patient adherence measures as well as clinical outcomes over six months.
Jacqueline Hodges

EP11-198-22-Concomitant hepatitis B or C infection in patients with TB in the Netherlands: results of screening specific risk groupsThe Dutch Thoracic Society recommends screening specific risk groups of tuberculosis (TB) patients for hepatitis B and C. Data on this policy has been registered in the national TB register since 2019. Results show that this policy may contribute to elimination strategies set for these diseases in the Netherlands.
Jossy van den Boogaard

EP11-199-22-Impact of universal TB screening (TB-Surge) on HIV case finding in selected facilities. Lessons from the TB-Surge intervention in Akwa Ibom State, NigeriaUniversal tuberculosis (TB) screening - TB-Surge - was implemented to find missing TB cases in health facilities in AkwaIbom, a Nigerian state with high TB-HIV burden. Based on World Health Organization recommendation, HIV testing was offered to patients with presumptive TB. Universal TB screening can contribute significantly to early HIV diagnosis and commencement of antiretroviral theory (ART). 
Chukwuemeka Austin Ihesie

EP11-200-22-An assessment of free radical oxidation of small intestine enterocyte proteins in HIV-TB co-infectionThe article is devoted to the study of free radical processes in the mucous membrane of patients with HIV-TB co-infection. It is known that these processes are intensified under conditions of hypoxia, including cytotoxic origin caused by the inflammatory response in the lung tissue.
Liliia Todoriko

EP11-201-22-Monocyte and lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of TB among people living with HIV after antiretroviral therapy initiationIt is a challenge to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV (PLWH) due to many of them having atypical presentation. We have demonstrated a simple tool that can help us predict TB incidence using monocytes to lymphocytes ratio (MLR) among HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Sivaporn Gatechompol

EP11-202-22-Comorbidities in Filipino people with active-TB disease: baseline data from the Starting Anti-TB Treatment (St-ATT) cohortFilipino data on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidities of malnutrition, diabetes, hypertension and anaemia are scarce. Malnutrition (BMI <17.0 kg/m2) was a common comorbidity (23.1%) followed by diabetes (22.7%), hypertension (14.8%), then anaemia (13.4%). Having >=1 comorbidities was more common in those with drug-resistant TB than those with drug-sensitive TB (61.8% vs 54.6%, p=0.05).
Shuichi Jack Suzuki

EP11-203-22-Prevalence of disseminated TB in HIV-infected persons admitted with sepsis at a tertiary hospital in western KenyaDiagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis (TB) in Persons Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) has been a challenge especially in resource-limited settings. The World Health Organization recommends lateral flow lipoarabinomannan antigen assay (LF-LAM) to aid in the diagnosis of active TB in PLHIV. However, its uptake in Kenya is still wanting.
Caroline Gituku

EP11-204-22-Is TB a major comorbidity in adolescent girls and young women living with HIV? A case in Turkana and Homa Bay Counties, KenyaWe documented tuberculosis (TB) testing, diagnosis, treatment initiation and outcomes of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). AGYW received a comprehensive intervention including HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and treatment monitoring as well as increased access to GeneXpert MTB/RIF testing and alcohol acid fast bacilli, plus treatment of drug-sensitive TB with fixed dose combination.

Phelix Mboya

EP11-205-22-Is it necessary to screen for TB in diabetes patients and how to do it? An endocrinologist-based questionnaire survey in Hunan Province, ChinaIs it necessary to screen for tuberculosis (TB) in diabetes patients and how to do it? Let's see what the endocrinologists think and how they do it from an endocrinologist-based questionnaire survey in Hunan Province of China.
Chengli Bei

EP11-206-22-Prevalence of malarial and HIV co-infection among TB presumptive and asymptomatic children aged <5 years in Western KenyaWhile the intersection between HIV and tuberculosis (TB) is well documented, despite the high burden globally of TB and malaria among children, co-infection data is lacking. We studied the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection among Kenyan children aged <5 years with presumptive TB compared to asymptomatic controls.
Mark Fajans

EP11-207-22-Incidence of hypokalemia among drug-resistant TB patients receiving delamanid-containing regimen in LesothoA delamanid-containing regimen is commonly used in Lesotho even though it belongs to group C. This is mainly due to its safety profile as well as absence of drug-drug interaction with certain antiretroviral therapy (ART) and, as such, we investigate the incidence of hypokalemia in drug-resistant tuberculosis patients receiving a delamanid-containing regimen.
Lawrence Oyewusi

Channel 2
OA-37-TB and HIV potpourri
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OA-37-TB and HIV potpourri
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12:30 - 12:35: Introduction

12:35 - 12:43: OA-37-728-24-Depression and its associated factors in persons with multidrug-resistant TB in Myanmar Depression is identified as an important potential comorbidity in persons with tuberculosis (TB), yet data in many settings are scarce. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of depression in persons with multidrug-resistant TB in Yangon, Myanmar. Relatively high prevalence of depression has been identified in this study.

Phyo Theingi

12:43 - 12:51: OA-37-729-24-Enteropathogens negatively impact antimycobacterial drug pharmacokinetics in children from rural Tanzania Malnourished children undergoing tuberculosis (TB) treatment in rural Tanzania had poor attainment of antimycobacterial pharmacokinetic targets. Overall enteropathogen-burden and bacterial enteropathogen- burden was identified as a risk factor for sub-target rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol serum concentrations.

Daniel Van Aartsen

12:51 - 12:59: OA-37-730-24-Finding the missing cases 0ne-by-two: testing contacts of people with presumptive TB to close TB and HIV case finding gaps in the Democratic Republic of Congo Community outreach efforts to identify missing cases are critical to achieving tuberculosis (TB) and HIV epidemic control goals. The United States Agency for International Development-funded integrated HIV/AIDS project in Haut Katanga (IHAP-HK) piloted the one-by-two approach, which was successful in earlier diagnosis of people with TB or HIV who may otherwise have been missed or diagnosed later through usual tracing efforts.  

Charlie Banzakadilo

12:59 - 13:07: OA-37-732-24-Determining the prevalence of TB in emergency departments in the Eastern Cape region of South Africa and the utility of the WHO TB screening tool This study aims to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in emergency departments in South Africa and the effectiveness of the World Health Organization (WHO) TB screening tool. While the WHO screening guidelines identify some TB-positive patients, the inclusion of additional criteria could increase the utility of this tool.

Jacob Roberts

13:07 - 13:15: OA-37-733-24-An in vitro intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV-1 co-infection model suitable for imaging-based platforms Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and HIV-1 are hazard group 3 pathogens, as such they are worked with and stored in containment level 3 laboratories. The aim of this work was to develop a safe methodology to co-infect macrophage cells with Mtb and HIV-1 to monitor pathogen interactions for drug screening purposes.

Samantha Donnellan

13:15 - 13:23: OA-37-734-24-Impact of integrating mental health services within existing TB treatment facilities Patients with tuberculosis (TB) are at a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, which can adversely impact treatment adherence. This study evaluates whether the integration of mental health services within TB programmes can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety and improve TB treatment completion among drug-susceptible TB patients.

Aneeta Pasha

13:23 - 13:50: Q&A

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