19 October-1 December 2020
The 51st Union World Conference On Lung Health
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Channel 5
OA-05-Innovative TB diagnostics
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OA-05-Innovative TB diagnostics
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12:30 - 12:35: Introduction


12:35 - 12:43: OA-05-529-21-Correlation of high-sensitivity C-reaction protein, Gene Xpert and urine LAM test for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive Kenyan patients within DREAM programme The objective of the present study is to improve tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis among HIV-positive patients using HS-CRR, LF-LAM test, 4SS and Gene Xpert. Five hundred and seventy eight Kenyan, TB-suspected patients were enrolled. Diagnosing TB infection in HIV-positive patients remains challenging, as concordance with clinical screening and different tests is suboptimal.

Fausto Ciccacci

12:43 - 12:51: OA-05-530-21-Purification of lipoarabinomannan from urine of patients with TB A multistep approach to extract urinary lipoarabinomannan (uLAM) from patients with tuberculosis (TB) and which can be scaled to use on large specimen volumes, was developed and assessed. The resulting uLAM will be used to support generation and screening of new uLAM antibodies that may increase the sensitivity of TB LAM assays.

Jason Cantera

12:51 - 12:59: OA-05-531-21-Sequence-specific hybridisation capture of urine cell-free DNA to diagnose pulmonary TB We have developed a highly-sensitive hybridisation capture assay for improved detection of TB-specific, cell-free DNA in urine. We present the results of clinical testing of our assay in urine from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults with, and without, pulmonary tuberculosis in South Africa and in healthy controls in the United States. 

Amy Oreskovic

12:59 - 13:07: OA-05-532-21-Correlation between the metabolic urine profile using nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and the standardised case definitions for the diagnosis of childhood TB Surveillance during treatment is essential to monitor adherence and treatment response. In this proof of concept we identified a urine metabolic profiling, based on nuclear magnetic resonance of drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients, that can identify individuals who have received treatment and changes over the course of TB treatment.

Patricia Comella-del-Barrio

13:07 - 13:15: OA-05-533-21-A novel urine method for the diagnosis of active pulmonary TB by immunoassay for the detection of ESAT-6 using hydrogel nanoparticles in HIV patients In HIV patients, tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis is difficult. A new test in urine - using hydrogel nanoparticles (NIPAm) with reactive blue - is proposed, allowing capture, preservation and concentrating ESAT-6. NIPAm are N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers, which capture and protect from enzymatic degradation. A new method for diagnosing active pulmonary TB was evaluated by immunoassay.

Raquel Mugruza

13:15 - 13:23: OA-05-534-21-Similarity algorithm for chest X-ray images: testing on large, annotated TB patient cohort and implementation of database search service We evaluated strategies for chest X-ray similarity calculation from radiomic features for application to the large, annotated image dataset in the NIAID Tuberculosis Portals (TBP). With increasingly large and well-annotated clinical image datasets, image retrieval through image similarity may help physicians identify similar patient cases with useful context for clinical care.

Conrad Shyu

13:23 - 13:31: OA-05-535-21-Diagnosis of TB through exhaled, volatile organic compounds using a real-time, high-pressure photon ionisation time-of-flight, mass spectrometry Early and accurate diagnosis and detection of tuberculosis (TB) is essential for achieving global TB control. More accurate, rapid and cost-effective screening tests are needed to improve case detection and treatment evaluation. Due to the non-invasive nature and the possibility to sample continuously, exhaled breath analysis has great clinical potential.

Liang Fu

13:31 - 13:50: Q&A


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Channel 1
SS-01-TB diagnostic network assessment: innovative and comprehensive TB diagnostic network assessment model
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SS-01-TB diagnostic network assessment: innovative and comprehensive TB diagnostic network assessment model
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Organised by: The United States Agency for International Development / Infectious Disease Detection and Surveillance (IDDS) project

The tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic network assessment is an innovative, holistic and comprehensive way to assess a country's dedicated TB diagnostic network. It's a country driven activity which involves local and external TB experts. This joint activity assesses the functionality of a country's TB diagnostic, in line with the national strategic plan and the End TB strategy. This assessment and review will help the country to identify key gaps and recommendations as well as help to strengthen a comprehensive TB diagnostic network with strong underlying health systems. 

Target audience 1: Doctors, Nurses, Lab technicians
Target audience 2: Clinicians, TB programme managers, activists
Target audience 3: TB project managers, NGOs



18:15 - 18:20: Introduction


18:20 - 18:35: Improving TB diagnostic access by the TB diagnostic network assessment model The Tuberculosis (TB ) diagnostic network assessment (DNA) is a country driven process that assesses the functionality of the national TB diagnostic network and system. It helps in determining the system’s capacity to meet the needs of the country’s national TB strategic plan (NSP) for achieving the goals outlined in the End TB strategy. The TB DNA reviews, holistically, the diagnostic network and current practices and algorithms; identifies challenges that prevent the diagnostic network from performing efficiently and effectively and proposes evidence-based interventions to improve the overall ability of the diagnostic network to meet the goals and targets of the NSP.

Amy Piatek

18:35 - 18:50: The TB diagnostic network assessment tool presentation The use of an assessment tool, with semi-quantitative scoring, for the country to identify the stage of various aspects of the diagnostic network and to describe current capabilities and identify key areas for improvement. Verification of the self-assessed staging, using a set of standardised tools and checklists, and including site visits to a selection of sites. Conducted by an experienced group of international laboratory experts with support from in-country lab and TB experts.

Thomas Shinnick

18:50 - 19:05: TB diagnostic network assessment: data and spatial analysis The spatial TB diagnostic network analysis will be used to inform tuberculosis diagnostic network assessment (TB DNA) planning on a selection of regions to be assessed during the in-country visit  - brief the TB DNA teams about TB diagnostic network situation (coverage, access and effectiveness) prior to/at the beginning of the assessment visit; inform conclusions and support the development of recommendations by the TB DNA team during the assessment visit; develop baseline network scenarios, which can be refined during the TB DNA in-country visit, based on findings and assumptions for additional diagnostic instruments, relocated instruments, altered specimen referral linkages or other.

Manuela Rehr

19:05 - 19:20: Infectious Disease Detection and Surveillance project support to countries on the TB diagnostic network assessment The Infectious Disease Detection and Surveillance (IDDS) project is currently working closely with countries’ national tuberculosis (TB) control programmes to reinforce TB and drug-resistant TB diagnostics for all eligible patients. The TB diagnostic network assessment (TB DNA) has already been conducted in India, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The upcoming countries for 2020 are Tanzania, Viet Nam and Bangladesh. We are also working with relevant stakeholders to conduct this assessment in Mozambique and Burma. The support from IDDS is based on the respect of human rights and that access to all these diagnostic technologies should be available, regardless of a population’s income or cultural, racial, gender, religious or ethnic inclination.

Inoussa Zabsonre

19:20 - 19:45: Q&A session


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Channel 2
SS-02-Shining a new light on TB diagnostics
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SS-02-Shining a new light on TB diagnostics
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Organised by: Cepheid

The overall objective of the session will support the audience to gain deeper insights on latest innovations in TB diagnostics. 
The panelists will walk through novel technologies to improve drug-susceptibility testing, host response concepts as well as clinical insights to leverage available diagnostic tools.
* CE-IVD. In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device. Product not available in the United States.

18:15 - 18:25: Introduction


18:25 - 18:45: Behind the scenes – Innovations in TB diagnostics Dr. Gnanashanmugam will share insights about the innovation behind the Xpert® MTB/XDR assay* and Cepheid’s technology.

Devasena Gnanashanmugam

18:45 - 19:05: Evaluation of Xpert® MTB/XDR* and possibilities of integration into the National diagnostic algorithm – the South African perspective Dr. Omar will present the first clinical evaluation of the recently launched Xpert® MTB/XDR* assay in South Africa.
* CE-IVD. In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device. Product not available in the United States.

Shaheed Vally Omar

19:05 - 19:25: Demonstrating the power of heterogeneity: from discovery to point-of-care using public data for tuberculosis diagnosis Dr. Khatri will speak about host response gene signatures in Tuberculosis and share further insights.

Purvesh Khatri

19:25 - 19:45: Using available TB diagnostics to Guide Patient Management – A Clinical Perspective Prof. Kon will share his experience as a clinical expert in how to leverage diagnostic tools for patient management.  
 

Onn Min Kon

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E-posters
EP19-Quality and modelling of TB
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EP19-Quality and modelling of TB
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All E-posters are accessible via the "E-posters" section of the conference platform until 30 November.

EP19-278-22-Mathematical modelling of new TB diagnostics at subnational sites: evaluating the effects on health systems and patients across sites in same province with differing characteristicsDifferent tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic strategies provide different benefits and require different resources.  We collected detailed pathway data from eight sites in a single Philippine province and evaluated five diagnostic strategies at each. Strategies were evaluated from a societal and health system perspective, with factors which significantly influenced the optimum strategies identified.  
Ewan Tomeny

EP19-279-22-Social media as a tool to build capacity and efficient clinical decision making for doctors working in resource-limited settingThe clinical care of presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients in remote areas can improve significantly by providing distance learning and effectively using social media as a tool to improve knowledge and capacity. This should be practiced in other hard-to-reach areas to provide quality care and accessible health services.
Myat Kay Khine

EP19-280-22-Access to quality TB diagnostic services in Nigeria: the role of specimen transport systemsSince 2016, the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme (NTBLCP) adopted and implemented the policy of using GeneXpert machine as the primary TB diagnostic tool. Adoption and strengthening a mixed model for effective sputum specimen transportation system greatly increased access to quality diagnostic services, contributing to improved TB case finding.
Sani Useni

EP19-281-22-Lateral flow lipoarabinomannan test for diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV in selected health facilities in Nigeria: hype or hope?To increase tuberculosis (TB) case detection among people living with HIV (PLHIV), we evaluated the effectiveness of the lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) test for TB diagnosis in PLHIV across selected states in Nigeria. Being a urine-based point-of-care- test, LF- LAM was found to bridge the diagnostic gap for PLHIV who could not produce quality sputum.
Nkiru Nwokoye

EP19-282-22-Impact of the rapid molecular test on the incidence of TB in an endemic city in the interior of São Paulo, BrazilEcological study. The Prais-Winsten autoregression method was used to classify the time trend of tuberculosis and then the interrupted time series method was used to identify whether there was a change in incidence after the beginning of diagnosis using the rapid molecular test.
Ricardo Arcêncio

EP19-283-22-Assessment of the quality management system in 23 national reference laboratories for TB in West and Central Africa using the SLIPTA toolAs part of the TB lab project coordinated by the World Health Organization's Supranational Reference Laboratory of Cotonou, the 23 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for tuberculosis (TB) in the West and Central Africa region were assessed between July 2019 and January 2020 using the SLIPTA (Stepwise Laboratory Improvement Process Towards Accreditation) tool.
Faridath Massou

EP19-284-22-Results from Namibia’s first TB national disease prevalence survey 2017-2018To better inform the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) control activities in Namibia, it was necessary to quantify the magnitude of the disease burden. The TB disease prevalence survey served as a tool to quantify the burden of TB in Namibia to enable improvement of TB control and, ultimately, end the TB epidemic.
Nunurai Ruswa

EP19-285-22-Bayesian latent class analysis versus composite reference standards for assessing TB pleuritis diagnostic test accuracyWe used latent class analysis to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculosis (TB) pleurisy, the most common form of extrapulmonary TB. We found that our estimates differed dramatically from accuracies derived from a variety of composite reference standards. 
Emily MacLean

EP19-286-22-A quarterly trend analysis of the contribution of the Wellness on Wheels intervention to TB case finding in Kano State, NigeriaThe aim of the study is to analyse the contribution of the Wellness on Wheels mobile diagnostic unit (WOW MDU) to case notifications in Kano state, Nigeria. The study showed that systematic screening using the WOW MDU is an effective method of increasing tuberculosis case notification rate and this can be scaled-up.
Mustapha Tukur

EP19-287-22-ARREST-TB: Accurate, Rapid, Robust and Economical diagnostic Technologies for TBWe share the significant progress made by ARREST-TB, a multilateral project funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 programme, the Ministry of Science and High Education of Russian Federation, and India’s Department of Biotechnology, towards the development of frugal diagnostic devices for tuberculosis and drug resistance profiling.
Seshasailam Venkateswaran

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SP-18-The work of the WHO European Laboratory Initiative on TB, HIV and viral hepatitis
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SP-18-The work of the WHO European Laboratory Initiative on TB, HIV and viral hepatitis
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This session describes activities of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Laboratory Initiative (ELI) with emphasis on development of integrative capacity to diagnose multiple diseases including, most recently, SARS-CoV-2. The ELI has developed and implemented policy statements for diagnostic and therapeutic integration, diagnostic algorithms, biosafety training, electronic external quality assurance dashboards for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), online training courses for the use and interpretation of WHO recommended rapid molecular techniques, and determined European laboratory readiness for the diagnosis of resistance to the drugs within the new multidrug-resistant TB treatment regimens, removal of western blot testing for HIV, and building behavioural science approaches into guidance strategies.

11:00 - 11:05: Introduction

11:05 - 11:15: European Laboratory Initiative (ELI) on TB, HIV and viral Hepatitis: supporting countries of the WHO European Region on integrated laboratory capacity building strategiesThe WHO European Region established the European Laboratory Initiative in 2012, in collaboration with the Global Laboratory Initiative, to strengthen laboratory capacities for accurate diagnosis and early detection of TB and drug resistant TB in the WHO European Region.
In 2018, ELI’s mission was expanded to upscale the detection of TB/HIV coinfection, HIV and viral hepatitis, with the ultimate objective of strengthening and making more efficient use of existing capacities for all 3 diseases.
During the COVID-19 pandemic this integrative capacity building approach has proven to be beneficial not only for TB, HIV and viral Hepatitis but also for SARS-CoV-2 testing. This presentation gives an overview of the Eli's activities.
Soudeh EHSANI

11:15 - 11:25: Algorithm for laboratory diagnosis and treatment monitoring of pulmonary TB and drug-resistant TB using state-of-the-art rapid molecular diagnostic technologiesThe World Health Organization (WHO) European Laboratory Initiative (ELI) has produced a key technical document describing how tuberculosis (TB) laboratories and programmes in the WHO European Region can increase the timely and accurate detection of TB and multidrug-resistant TB. The approach emphasises the importance of molecular-based diagnostics through the use of detailed algorithms for diagnostic and treatment progression. It helps laboratories and clinicians improve their joint understanding of what the test results mean, their limitations and the therapeutic actions that follow. It builds on the ELI online courses which provide practical training on the interpretation of WHO-endorsed tests for drug-resistant TB.
Francis Drobniewski

11:25 - 11:35: European Laboratory Initiative online course on drug-resistant TB: how to interpret rapid molecular test resultsThe European Laboratory Initiative for tuberculosis (TB), HIV and viral hepatitis has recently launched a free online course that provides practical guidance and expert advice on the interpretation of selected World Health Organization-endorsed tests for drug-resistant TB. More specifically, it covers the latest guidance for the interpretation of rapid molecular drug-susceptibility testing assays by Cepheid (GeneXpert MTB/RIF and GeneXpert MTB/RIF Ultra) and Hain Lifescience (GenoTypeMTBDRplus VER 2.0 and GenoTypeMTBDRsl VER 2.0). This presentation will introduce the course, assess its reception to date and outline future plans.

Claudio Koeser

11:35 - 11:45: Integration of multi-disease testing platforms for infectious diseases to maximise the benefit in time of need: using TB, HIV, and hepatitis C as an example.The presentation will focus on the role that integrated diagnosis and monitoring responses can have in the region as a means to provide high quality, more person-centred services, making use of the systems already in place. Drawing on examples from tuberculosis, HIV and hepatitis C, it will reflect on opportunities and barriers moving forward, and provide examples of how systems can adjust in order to provide more effective responses.

Daniel Simoes

11:45 - 11:55: External quality assurance dashboard for TB drug-susceptibility testing: why a once-a-year evaluation is insufficient to guarantee for quality drug susceptibility testing resultsThe use of World Health Organization-recommended new anti-tuberculosis (TB) medications is emphasised in the new guidelines. High quality drug susceptibility testing (DST) and high DST coverage for notified TB cases is required. There is a global challenge with the number of bacteriologically-confirmed notified TB cases, despite excellent annual panel testing results. To ensure the quality of phenotypic DST and to verify the steps of diagnostic process, a comprehensive DST assessment tool has been developed to be used in future independently by laboratory workers. The tool aims to identify gaps and suggest ways to improve the drug susceptibility testing: i) evaluation of the performance and role of the laboratory in bacteriological confirmation among notified TB cases; ii) quick identification of weak points in the existing laboratory workflow; iii) recommendations for laboratory development; iv) standardisation of assessment process, uniform results; v) help in implementation of the recommended algorithm and laboratory quality indicators calculation.

Natalia Shubladze

11:55 - 12:20: Q&A session

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OA-11-New solutions to old TB challenges
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OA-11-New solutions to old TB challenges
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11:00 - 11:05: Introduction


11:05 - 11:13: OA-11-563-22-Comparison of three bacteriological methods of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cerebrospinal fluid Detection of cell-free DNA of pathogens has got good results in the diagnosis studies of various diseases. We prospectively detect the cell-free DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), culture and Xpert MTB/RIF in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and evaluated the diagnostic value of this three methods for TBM.

Xuelian Li

11:13 - 11:21: OA-11-564-22-Non-invasive respiratory aerosol sampling using masks for detection of pulmonary TB in children The development of a non-invasive sampling method for paediatric tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis is a priority research area. Respiratory aerosols collected on patients masks can be a simple and non-invasive source for diagnosis. This study provides a proof of concept that respiratory aerosols can be used for detection of pulmonary TB in children.

Kalpana Sriraman

11:21 - 11:29: OA-11-565-22-Stool-based Xpert Ultra testing for childhood TB in Kampala, Uganda We evaluated the performance of a centrifuge-free, rapid stool processing kit for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children using the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay. We present the diagnostic accuracy among children prospectively enrolled in Kampala, Uganda, and added yield with a repeat test.

Mariam Nakabuye

11:29 - 11:37: OA-11-566-22-Development of a treatment decision algorithm for HIV-uninfected children with presumptive pulmonary TB We developed treatment decision algorithms and demonstrated that, clinical history and examination, provides sufficient evidence to make a treatment decision for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) without chest radiography and Xpert. Starting more children on anti-TB treatment, based on clinical evidence, will contribute substantially to reducing TB mortality in children globally.

Kenneth Gunasekera

11:37 - 11:45: OA-11-567-22-Evaluation of mycobacterial smart probes: novel fluorescent probes for the detection of live mycobacteria in diagnostic samples The study focuses on the development of a new method for rapid screening of tuberculosis (TB) - new fluorescent dyes incorporated into the mycobacteria cell wall. At the University of Edinburgh, novel trehalose-based fluorescent probes (mycobacterial smart probes) were developed and evaluated in CTRI (Moscow, Russia).

Assel Baibek

11:45 - 11:53: OA-11-568-22-Identification and validation of efflux pump inhibitors against Rv1218c in multidrug-resistant TB clinical isolates To prevent resistance mediated by efflux pumps, designing inhibitors which in turn increases the activity of the antibiotics. Rv1218c is a major ABC transporter which causes efflux of multiple substrates, novobiocins and pyridines. We identified raffinose and palmitic acid as a potent efflux pump inhibitor, reducing the MICs of RMP.

Rajesh Mondal

11:53 - 12:20: Q&A


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OA-16-TB Xpert in low- and middle-income countries: ensuring quality and quantity
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OA-16-TB Xpert in low- and middle-income countries: ensuring quality and quantity
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12:30 - 12:35: Introduction


12:35 - 12:43: OA-16-598-22-Phased scale-up of external quality assurance for GeneXpert MTB/RIF testing under national TB elimination programme , India India's TB programme has rapidly scaled-up GeneXpert MTB/Rif testing, almost doubling the sites (628 to 1180), and testing has increased by five times (578173-2407211) from 2016 to 2018. To ensure a quality testing process, it strategically implemented External Quality Assurance (EQA) in a phased manner to monitor the quality of testing.

K Reena

12:43 - 12:51: OA-16-599-22-South Africa’s Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra external quality assurance experience: a need for good laboratory practice to minimise contamination South Africa's experience using external quality assurance in detecting contamination, due to Xpert® MTB/RIF Ultra’s increased sensitivity, and the need for improved good laboratory practice. A notable increase in the number of discordant results was analysed to advise on programme training needs and procedures to be reviewed for minimising contamination in routine settings.

Puleng Marokane

12:51 - 12:59: OA-16-600-22-Mentoring TB labs for improving and sustaining quality management system implementation and ISO 15189 accreditation: experiences from India The abstract focuses on experiences from India for improving and sustaining quality management system (QMS) implementation and ISO 15189 accreditation at 11 tuberculosis laboratories through mentoring support over the last three years

Tarak Shah

12:59 - 13:07: OA-16-601-22-A pilot study on the implementation of proficiency testing dried tube specimen production at a national public health laboratory: National Tuberculosis Laboratory, Kenya The external quality assurance panels enable facilities to identify diagnostic gas on time to enable continuity of quality services.
The Kenya National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory demonstrated competency for panel production and managing the pilots, including corrective actions. These was made possible by mentorship from the US CDC, Atlanta, and the SRL, Uganda.

Solomon Bundi

13:07 - 13:15: OA-16-602-22-Role of GeneXpert technology in early detection of rifampicin-resistant TB in Afghanistan Elimination of tuberculosis (TB) is a major health priority for Afghanistan. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses enormous challenges to health systems due to the complexity of diagnoses and treatment. For better diagnostic of presumptive MDR-TB patients, new bacteriologic-confirmed patients and extra-pulmonary TB, the national TB programme installed 49 GeneXpert machines.

Del Aqa Safi

13:15 - 13:23: OA-16-603-22-Overcoming barriers to GeneXpert optimisation in Nigeria: an analysis using the access concept GeneXpert optimisation is key to improving tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, including rifampicin-resistant TB. However, Nigeria is yet to achieve the optimisation goal. This qualitative case-based study analyses barriers to effective GeneXpert optimisation using the ‘access concept’ and proposes proven health system and community strategies to surmount them.

Ogoamaka Chukwuogo

13:23 - 13:31: OA-16-604-22-The use of Xpert MTB/RIF in mobile vans: experience from Namibia A Namibian experience of using Xpert MTB/RIF instruments in mobile vans to demonstrate the feasiblility of use of these instruments in field-based screening activities. This demonstration proves that Gene X-pert can be utilised effectively outside routine laboratory settings to screen and diagnose drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in order to combat TB transmission.

Anita Beukes

13:31 - 13:50: Q&A


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OA-18-(Im)possible mission: TB care in low-resourced settings
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OA-18-(Im)possible mission: TB care in low-resourced settings
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15:00 - 15:05: Introduction


15:05 - 15:13: OA-18-612-22-Enabling MPs to support and take ownership of India’s TB programme Localised review and troubleshooting mechanisms, with political will and ownership driving them forward, could be pivotal for the success of tuberculosis (TB) programmes. This pilot initiative showed that elected representatives (Members of Parliament), when provided with the right tools and information, are well placed to support TB elimination efforts. 

Indira Behara

15:13 - 15:21: OA-18-613-22-99DOTS for TB treatment supervision in Uganda: adherence rates and acceptability 99DOTS is a low-cost technology with the potential to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence and completion. We implemented 99DOTS at 18 health facilities in Uganda to evaluate treatment adherence, benefits and challenges of using it. Despite challenges of phone availability and software malfunctions, patients and providers found the technology acceptable and convenient.

Alex Kityamuwesi

15:21 - 15:29: OA-18-614-22-Determinants of delayed diagnosis and treatment of TB in high burden countries: a mixed methods systematic review and meta-analysis Delays in diagnosis and treatment vary across countries and little is known among countries bearing most of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to derive the determinants and duration of diagnosis and treatment delay of pulmonary TB in the high TB-burden countries.

Alvin Kuo Jing Teo

15:29 - 15:37: OA-18-615-22-The effect of depression, anxiety and other risk factors on adherence to anti-TB treatment in the Philippines It is important to know the effect of depression, anxiety, stigma, social/family support and nutrition on adherence. In the Philippines, there is limited published research on the barriers to adherence in tuberculosis (TB) patients. This study investigated the reasons for non-adherence among Filipino TB patients enrolled in public TB-DOTS centres. 

Hend Elsayed

15:37 - 15:45: OA-18-616-22-Impact of HIV 'test and treat' policy on the incidence of TB in HIV populations in East-Central Uganda This abstract demonstrates the impact of the test and treat early antiretroviral treatment initiation policy on the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV populations, in programme settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The risk of TB among people living with HIV significantly reduced with the test and treat policy. It adds programmatic evidence for the implementation of the policy.

Rodrigo Nyinoburyo

15:45 - 15:53: OA-18-617-22-Utility and benefits of TB molecular bacterial load assay to monitor TB therapy in a resource-limited, high burden setting Rapid and accurate tests are needed for monitoring tuberculosis (TB) therapy. We explored the utility and benefits of TB molecular bacterial load assay (TB-MBLA) for monitoring TB therapy. We found that the TB-MBLA test provides rapid and accurate results in time to inform clinical management of TB patients and that it can be applied in high burden settings.

Bariki Mtafya

15:53 - 16:01: OA-18-618-22-Using TB care process mapping to improve treatment retention and treatment success rate in low-income settings: experience from central Uganda According to the World Health Organization, tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate (TSR) is below the 95% global target in many countries, including in Uganda. TB patient retention is a contributor to TSR. By early 2019, only 17% facilities were meeting the national retention target. A TB care process mapping intervention was implemented with improvements in retention and TSR.  

Herbert Kisamba

16:01 - 16:20: Q&A


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EP27-Difficult problems in TB infection and treatment
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EP27-Difficult problems in TB infection and treatment
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All E-posters are accessible via the "E-posters" section of the conference platform until 30 November.

EP27-354-23-Difference in persistent TB bacteria between in vitro and sputum from patients: implications for translational predictionsThis abstract covers work that revealed difference in phenotypic resistance between in vitro and in human tuberculosis patients, prior to initiation of chemotherapy. The findings will have impact on the prediction of EBA activity from in vitro, drug-effect experiments.
Alan Faraj

EP27-355-23-Characterisation of the metabolic urine profile using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to monitor treatment of TBEarly tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in children is crucial for prescribing prompt treatment and reducing mortality. We identified a correlation between the nuclear magnetic resonance-based urinary metabolic profile and the standardised case definitions for TB diagnosis in children, which may improve childhood TB detection by shortening the time of diagnosis and initiation of treatment.
Patricia Comella-del-Barrio

EP27-357-23-Systemic inflammation in pregnant women with and without latent TB infectionStudies have reported increased systemic inflammation in adults with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI+) compared to those without LTBI. However, as potential differences have not been assessed in pregnant populations, we compared levels of systemic inflammation by LTBI status in pregnant women with, and without, LTBI in Pune, India. 
Rupak Shivakoti

EP27-359-23-Predicting the efficiency of the treatment of drug-resistant TB depending on the polymorphism variation of glutathione-S-transferase genesGenes, the expression of which plays a key role in the resistance of cells to the effects of free radicals by lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of proteins, preventing breakage of DNA, biosynthesis of prostaglandins, transportation and metabolism of bilirubin, hormones are genes which code the synthesis of glutathione-S -transferase.
Ihor Semianiv

EP27-360-23-Usefulness of gene sequencing for identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteriaCorrect identification is crucial to manage non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. Line probe assays are widely used for identification of NTM, but they cover 20-30 species. Our study showed that 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing were able to give a species name for most isolates not identified by line probe assay.
Chang-Ki Kim

EP27-362-23-Latency-associated antigen Rv1733c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis improves the value of differential diagnosis of active TB and latent TB infectionCurrently available interferon-γ release assay cannot reliably differentiate active tuberculosis (ATB) from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Our research shows that Rv1733c SLP can be used as an alternative antigen for T cell-based TB diagnostic tests, in combination with ESAT-6 and CFP-10, to conducive differentiate between ATB and LTBI.
Huimin Ma

EP27-363-23-Dried blood spot sampling to assess rifampicin pharmacokinetics among TB patients in Paraguay: native indigenous and general populationA minimally invasive, alternative sampling matrix collected utilising limited sampling time points has gained significant traction with a potential to make therapeutic drug monitoring an attainable goal in settings with tuberculosis (TB) endemicity. We evaluated rifampicin pharmacokinetic parameters, among native indigenous and general Paraguayan TB patients, using dried blood spots sampling. 
Samiksha Ghimire

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Channel 7
OA-25-TB: deep into molecular structure
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query_builder 11:00 - 12:20 | Event time (GMT+2)
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OA-25-TB: deep into molecular structure
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11:00 - 11:05: Introduction


11:05 - 11:13: OA-25-655-23-Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes and their association with drug resistance in Mumbai, India Transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (DR Mtbc) strains of particular subtypes/genotypes in high burden areas like Mumbai, poses a scenario of rapid spread of DR Mtbc strains.  We attempt to determine transmission levels, through genome-based cluster analysis of Mtbc strains from Mumbai city, using whole genome sequencing.

Viola Dreyer

11:13 - 11:21: OA-25-656-23-Delineate TB transmissions for outbreak investigations using whole genome sequencing in Taiwan For facilitating tuberculosis (TB) control, whole genome sequencing needs to be combined with classical epidemiological methods for improving resolution of transmission networks and for improving outbreak investigation. Preliminary results showed that higher SNP threshold might be required to define a multidrug-resistant TB outbreak. 

Tai-Hua Chan

11:21 - 11:29: OA-25-657-23-Characterisation of mutations in the rifampicin resistance-determining region of the rpoB gene associated with multidrug-resistant TB in Zambia For many low-income settings, access to full drug susceptibility testing (DST) is limited. Innovative ways of interpreting laboratory results, informed by existing laboratory data, can contribute positively to management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the absence of full DST results.

Winnie Mwanza

11:29 - 11:37: OA-25-658-23-MIRU-VNTR genotyping indicates marked heterogeneity of TB transmission in the United States, 2009–2018 Heterogeneity in the number of secondary tuberculosis (TB) cases per source case is important in modelling the impact of control strategies on incidence. We used genotyping data from U.S. TB cases to estimate the distribution of the number of secondary cases per source case and found a highly skewed distribution.

Carly Rodriguez

11:37 - 11:45: OA-25-659-23-Tuberculosis Molecular Bacterial Load Assay (TB-MBLA): a method to speed early phase tuberculosis TB clinical trials Pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers in Phase II studies measure drug efficacy to define phase III studies would be appropriate. Current culture-based techniques impose significant delay and cannot be used for treatment monitoring. TB-MBLA is a molecular measure of the number of live bacteria by detecting16S rRNA, allowing rapid treatment monitoring.

Evelin Dombay

11:45 - 11:53: OA-25-660-23-Impact of Randomised, blinded rechecking programme on the performance of the acid-fast bacilli microscopy laboratory network in Uganda: an eleven years' retrospective study Microscopy’s yield highly depends on the staining technique and reading ability of laboratory personnel. Uganda set up a randomised, blinded rechecking in 2008, an external quality assessment programme. We conducted an eleven-year, retrospective study to evaluate the programme impact on the performance of Uganda’s microscopy laboratory network.

Andrew Nsawotebba

11:53 - 12:20: Q&A


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