19 October-1 December 2020
The 51st Union World Conference On Lung Health
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E-posters
EP08-COVID-19 and TB: friends or foes?
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EP08-COVID-19 and TB: friends or foes?
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All E-posters are accessible via the "E-posters" section of the conference platform until 30 November.

EP08-168-21-TB and Covid-19: Bangladesh perspective and challengesCovid-19 posed challenges in tuberculosis (TB) control in Bangladesh. During the first two months of the pandemic, a decrease in TB patients was reported. Patient-centred care was ensured by providing medicine to the patients and using telecommunication. Interim and long-term preparedness is required to resume enhanced momentum of TB control.
Mahfuza Rifat

EP08-169-21-The impact of Covid-19 on TB control in the Coast General Teaching and Referral Hospital, Mombasa County, KenyaKenya confirmed its first case of Covid-19 on 12 March 2020. In an effort to combat the pandemic Kenya, like the rest of the world, introduced some changes to its health service delivery. Being a country with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, this had an impact on TB patients accessing care.
Cosmas Mwashumbe

EP08-170-21-Design and organisation of a temporary intensive care ward in response to the COVID-19 pandemicCOVID-19 placed a heavy burden on medical services. We designed and organised a temporary intensive care unit (ICU) ward within 48 hours. The space design, environmental cleaning and patients' daily care were the key steps to organising a practical ICU ward during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Xiangfeng Li

EP08-171-21-Trend analysis of exponential increase of COVID-19 cases in PakistanThe study was conducted to see the trends of COVID-19 among the Pakistani population. Pakistan started to feel the impact of the outbreak in mid-March with an increase in the number of cases at an alarming pace. So far, Sindh and Punjab province are the worst hit provinces with wide-spread community transmission.
Nadia Noreen

EP08-172-21-Sustaining TB services during the COVID-19 pandemic: experience and lessons learned from Nigeria in 2020Measures put in place to control the COVID-19 pandemic had the potential for interrupting tuberculosis (TB) services and erasing the gain made in TB control. Sustaining TB programmes during the COVID-19 pandemic became a priority of the national TB programme in Nigeria and the steps taken are documented and described in this study. 
Fadare Amos Omoniyi

EP08-175-21-Psychological experiences of mobile van TB screening team during COVID- 19 pandemic in Blantyre, MalawiResults have shown that health workers, working under MDU, experience several psychological challenges in this era of the COVID-19 pandemic and have compromised TB screening services. Therefore, mental health interventions are needed to mitigate these challenges. Self-coping style and psychological growth are important for health workers to maintain mental health.
Khwima Esther Mkalira

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E-posters
EP09-Improved acceptability of TB regimens needed
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EP09-Improved acceptability of TB regimens needed
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All E-posters are accessible via the "E-posters" section of the conference platform until 30 November.

EP09-176-21-Risk factors for cycloserine neurotoxicity in patients treated for multidrug-resistant TBCycloserine has been re-classified as a category B drug by the World Health Organization. The neurotoxicity associated with cylcoserine has limited its use in treatment programmes. We systemically collected neurotoxicity data in patients in Cape Town treated with cycloserine, dosed as terizidone, for multidrug-resistant TB. We then evaluated factors, including cycloserine AUC, with neurotoxicity.
Richard Court

EP09-177-21-Hearing loss on second line injectable therapy for rifampin-resistant TB in a retrospective cohort in Worcester, South AfricaSecond line injectables (SLIs) remain a part of the drug-resistant TB regimen in many settings globally, even with SLI-induced ototoxicity rates remaining high. In this South African rifampin-resistant TB cohort, regimen adjustments due to hearing loss were common, further emphasising the need for access to SLI-sparing regimens.
Tara C Bouton

EP09-178-21-Treatment outcome of shorter regimen for multidrug-resistant TB in Pakistan 2018The National Tuberculosis (TB) Programme in Pakistan recommended a shorter regimen of nine-11 months in January 2018 under programmatic settings in all PMDT sites of the country. We compared treatment outcome of patients who were put on the shorter regimen, with those who were eligible for the shorter regimen but who were put on the longer one.
Abdul Ghafoor

EP09-179-21-From pilot to nationwide scale-up of shorter treatment regimen for drug-resistant TB treatment: lessons from NigeriaFollowing the adoption and rapid scale-up of GeneXpert as a primary tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic tool, limited bed spaces resulted in the challenge of a huge number of diagnosed drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) patients on treatment waiting lists. The CTB project facilitated nationwide scale-up of STR and NDs, including establishing aDSM for newly diagnosed DR-TB patients.
Sani Useni

EP09-180-21-Preferences for shorter regimens and child-friendly formulations for TB preventive treatment among families affected by TB in Lima, PeruFocus group discussions with families affected by tuberculosis (TB) in Lima, Peru, explored preferences for TB preventive treatment regimens, for both adult and child contacts, and sought to understand the drivers behind these preferences.
Courtney Yuen

EP09-182-21-Safety and efficacy of allogeneic γδ T cells for multidrug-resistant TB: an interim analysis of a prospective single centre, open labeled, non-randomised, controlled matched trialAnti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs for multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) currently encounter many obstacles and host-directed therapy approaches are now a focus for use as adjunct treatment options for shortening duration, limiting immunopathology, and improving outcomes. The safety and efficacy of γδT cells have been studied in our pilot trial, which is the first one worldwide.
Liang Fu

EP09-183-21-Interim outcomes of bedaquiline-containing regimen for the treatment of MDR/XDR-TB — a prospective cohort study from Hunan, ChinaChina introduced bedaquiline relatively late and little data exists on its use outside clinical trials. We conducted  a prospective cohort study to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of bedaquiline-containing regimen for 24 weeks intensive treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) in Hunan province, China.
li shi

EP09-184-21-Treatment interruption patterns among patients on bedaquiline- containing regimen under programmatic conditionsThis was an observational study, including 275 consecutively enrolled tuberculosis (TB) patients, who received a bedaquiline-containing regimen under the national TB programme in India. The study analysed the reasons for interruptions of treatment and loss to follow-up and their effect on interim treatment outcomes during the first six months of treatment.
Rupak Singla

EP09-185-21-Incidence rate of linezolid adverse events among Myanmar adult MDR/RR-TB patients on individualised longer drug-resistant TB regimensLinezolid, a Group A drug, has evidences for significant treatment success but it also has common, serious adverse events such as myelosuppression and peripheral neuropathy. The study determined the incidence rate of linezolid adverse events and characterised the safety of linezolid among Myanmar adult multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (TB) patients who were on individualised, longer drug-resistant TB regimens.
Thandar Hmun

EP09-186-21-Real-time payment of Nikshay Poshan Yojana under direct benefit transfer scheme improved overall notification, treatment adherence and outcome of TB and DR-TB patients in Odisha, IndiaReal-time payment of Nikshay Poshan Yojana under a direct benefit transfer scheme improved the overall notification, treatment adherence and outcome of tuberculosis (TB) and drug-resistant TB patients in Odisha, India. The National TB Programme performance rank in the Odisha state went up from 27th to 15th during 2019.
Gayadhar Mallick

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E-posters
EP10-Overcoming barriers in the contact cascade of care
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EP10-Overcoming barriers in the contact cascade of care
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All E-posters are accessible via the "E-posters" section of the conference platform until 30 November.

EP10-187-21-A missed opportunity: active contact investigation of diagnosed TB patients in NigeriaPeople who have been in close contact with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients constitute a high-risk group for developing TB disease. Active household contact investigation of index TB patients demonstrates a great opportunity to increase a diverse pool of human resources, capacity to diagnosis and to notify additional TB cases.
Sani Useni

EP10-188-21-Risk of developing active multidrug-resistant TB among contacts in Taiwan, 2016-2018Identifying at-risk contacts, who have been exposed to a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) index patient, to see if they develop active disease would help advancing prevention of MDR-TB in Taiwan. In addition, active follow-up and prioritising those household or IGRA-positive contacts for latent TB treatment may further decline the incidence of MDR-TB. 
Pin Hui Lee

EP10-189-21-Utility of interferon gamma/tumor necrosis factor alpha FluoroSpot assay in differentiation between active TB and latent TB infection: a pilot studyWe aimed to provide a highly sensitive and practical auxiliary method for tuberculosis (TB) differential diagnosis. In this abstract, we demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy of the interferon gamma/tumor necrosis factor alpha (IFN-γ/TNF-α ) FluoroSpot assay for differentiating active TB from latent TB infection. 
Ziyue Zhou

EP10-190-21-Results of management latent TB infection in Quang Nam province, Viet Nam, 2017-2018Results of the management of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection during the period of 2017-2018 in Quang Nam province, Viet Nam. Interventions have shown to be effective in increasing the ability to identify, screen TB and treat latent TB infection among household contacts of TB patients.
LV Vinh

EP10-192-21-Effectiveness of contact tracing intervention for improving TB case detection in NigeriaSystematic investigation of contacts of index TB cases for active disease has remained a priority active case finding strategy. Stakeholders for tuberculosis (TB) control need to apply the right strategy, job aid, tools and training for health workers to help standardise TB information and empower communities with the right TB knowledge
Chidubem Ogbudebe

EP10-193-21-Dilemma in contact investigation: to expand or notContact investigation as a part of Dutch tuberculosis (TB) policy aims for early case detection, treatment and prevention of TB transmission. Risk assessment forms a basic approach to the organisation of contact investigation.
Sophie Toumanian

EP10-194-21-Piloting a shortened regimen for the treatment of latent TB infection in two provinces of Viet NamIn 2019, Friends for International TB Relief, together with the Viet Nam National TB Programme, implemented community-based tuberculosis (TB) case finding campaigns with integrated latent TB infection testing and treatment using a shortened regimen in two provinces of Viet Nam. We herein describe the results of these activities.
Thuy Thu Thi Dong

EP10-195-21-Prevalence of latent TB infection and predictive factors among working-age population in urban and rural area of Northern Guangdong, China: a cross-sectional studyChina has one of the highest burdens of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). Studies, which mainly focused on high-risk population, observed LTBI prevalence ranging from 9% up to 70%. The goal of this study was to describe LTBI burden in the general population, especially in those of working age, and determine its associated factors.
Fangjing ZHOU

EP10-196-21-Impact of civil society advocacy on the introduction of TB LAM testing in PEPFAR-eligible countriesUptake of tuberculosis (TB) LAM testing in high TB and HIV burden countries has been limited despite a demonstrated mortality benefit among people with advanced HIV. We reviewed FY2018 and FY2019 PEPFAR country operational plans to evaluate the impact of advocacy on TB LAM uptake in PEPFAR-eligible countries.
David Branigan

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E-posters
EPTBS-TBScience 2020 - E-posters - Displayed All Conference Days
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EPTBS-TBScience 2020 - E-posters - Displayed All Conference Days
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All TBScience 2020 E-posters will be displayed from 10 am Central European Summer Time (CEST), on Wednesday, 21 October for the duration of the conference and beyond

EP-TBS-01-Increased neutrophil count and decreased neutrophil CD15 expression correlate with TB disease severity and treatment response
Lerato Ndlovu

EP-TBS-02-Genome-wide identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic markers associated with the history of BCG vaccination
Kamela Charmaine S. Ng

EP-TBS-03-Characterization of regulatory B-cells for tuberculosis management
Irene Latorre

EP-TBS-04-Different antimycobacterial activity of alveolar macrophages in various lung legions of tuberculosis patients
Sergey Skornyakov

EP-TBS-05-Plasma mediators of phagocytosis in tuberculosis patients during anti-TB treatment and zinc supplementation
Victory Edem

EP-TBS-06-Discerning divergent tuberculosis endotypes: A meta-analysis of individual patient data
Andrew DiNardo

EP-TBS-07-Plasma Interferon (IFN)-g Inducible Protein 10 (IP-10) levels but not the QuantiFERON Gold plus assay correlate with disease severity and paradoxical reactions in extrapulmonary tuberculosis
Isabelle Suarez

EP-TBS-08-Host immune factors related to non-multidrug resistant tuberculosis with treatment history in Vietnam
Naoto Keicho

EP-TBS-09-Risk factors for the development of tuberculosis in children with chronic non-specific lung diseases.
Sofya Nakonechnaya

EP-TBS-10-Polyfunctional T-cells and IL-2 production decrease during pregnancy in women with latent TB infection
Jyoti Mathad

EP-TBS-11-Neutrophils Contribute to Tuberculosis-linked Inflammation and lung pathology
Caleb Nwongbouwoh Muefong

EP-TBS-12-Association of neutrophil-derived inflammatory mediator levels with lung pathology in active tuberculosis at diagnosis
Caleb Nwongbouwoh Muefong

EP-TBS-13-Characterising the BCG-induced antibody response for antigen discovery
Rachel Tanner

EP-TBS-14-ESAT-6 / CFP-10-stimulated metabolic activity of pleural fluid cells if cured tuberculosis or TB / HIV
Sergey Skornyakov

EP-TBS-15-Blood-Based Biomarkers of Tuberculosis in Children Integrating Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Data
Jeffrey A Tornheim

EP-TBS-16-Identification of TGF-β1 in pleural tuberculosis: the possible role in fibrosis
Silvio Renan Pinheiro Victor de Araújo

EP-TBS-17-Analysis of serum microRNAs as pulmonary tuberculosis biomarkers
JaeIn Jung

EP-TBS-18-Up-regulated programmed death protein 1 expression on CD4 T cells in patients with MDR-TB  associated with lung lesion and mycobacterial load
Qi Tan

EP-TBS-19-Malnutrition affects levels of vascular endothelial growth factor levels among children and adolescents with pulmonary tuberculosis?
Caio Pluvier Duarte Costa

EP-TBS-20-Towards identification of protein markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv extracellular vesicles (EV)
MEHALENE JAYARAM

EP-TBS-21-Increased frequency of CD39+ regulatory T cells in the pleural fluid of patients with Tuberculosisin comparison to other exudative causes
Ana Paula Santos

EP-TBS-22-Longitudinal analysis of M. tuberculosis-specific T cell responses demonstrates dynamic T cell responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 during pregnancy independently of mitogen responses.
Aparajita Saha

EP-TBS-23-Serum Cytokine Profile as Biomarker for Multi-drug Resistant Tuberculosis
Alahaman Nana Boakye

EP-TBS-24-Reanalysis and validation of Tuberculosis genes signature in blood and pleural fluid from patients with exudative pleural effusion
Raquel da Silva Corrêa

EP-TBS-25-TimBre, Cough based screening of Pulmonary Tuberculosis using Machine Learning that is Explainable and Interpretable
Rahul Pathri

EP-TBS-26-HbA1C as prognostic factor in PTB
Sarang Patil

EP-TBS-27-Better intradermal delivery for bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine by microneedles in healthy adults of S. Korea
Hyejon Lee

EP-TBS-28-MULTIPLEX BIOMARKER ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
Puneet Gupta

EP-TBS-29-Role of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 in the recruitment and retention of lung resident memory T cells following a pulmonary TB vaccine. 
Warwick Britton

EP-TBS-31-Benefit of Quantiferon-TB Gold plus in incidence of TB disease in Heath care workers of Central Chest Institute of Thailand
piamlarp sangsayunh

EP-TBS-32-The blood monocyte/lymphocyte, neutrophil/lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratios in children with pulmonary tuberculosis
Larissa Gorbach

EP-TBS-33-Pulmonary tuberculosis patients have an anaerobe-enriched microbiota associated with a pro-inflammatory peripheral host immune phenotype
Charissa Naidoo

EP-TBS-34-The epidemiologic impact and cost-effectiveness of new tuberculosis vaccines on rifampicin resistant and multidrug resistant tuberculosis in India and China
Chathika Weerasuriya

EP-TBS-36-Novel, culture-free, same-day TB diagnosis with ultrasensitive ELISA
Rikiya Takeuchi

EP-TBS-37-Tuberculosis screening in point-of-care settings: Proof-of-concept for a fast and easy sample-to-answer qPCR-based protocol
Alexandre Dias Tavares Costa

EP-TBS-38-Diagnostic accuracy of three urine lipoarabinomannan tuberculosis assays in HIV-negative outpatients
Tobias Broger

EP-TBS-39-To Study The Presence Of Live Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Resected Lung Specimens Of Patients Undergoing Lung resection Surgery For Post-Tuberculosis Sequelae
Pallavi Purwar

EP-TBS-40-What can tuberculosis prevalence surveys tell us about the duration of asymptomatic bacteriologically-positive disease?
Chu-Chang Ku

EP-TBS-41-An RNA signature for tuberculosis risk in pregnant women: a prospective cohort study from India
Jyoti Mathad

EP-TBS-42-Analysis of mycobacterial trans-renal DNA for the diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis in adults.
Manisha Dass

EP-TBS-43-Developing a tool to identify and screen Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) with likelihood of progression to active Tuberculosis (ATB)
Prashant Singh

EP-TBS-44-QuantiFERON TB plus-negative results in clinically diagnosed paediatric tuberculosis: immune suppression or misdiagnosis?
Gloria Ivy Mensah

EP-TBS-45-Evaluation of a blood-based antigen test for tuberculosis in HIV-exposed children younger than 5 years
Tony Hu

EP-TBS-46-Adverse drug reactions in MDR TB Patients on ATT
Sarang Patil

EP-TBS-47-Species and Drug Susceptibility profile of Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria isolated from presumptive TB cases
PRIYA RAJENDRAN

EP-TBS-48-MAMA-PCR assay for the detection of point mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates
Raquel Muñiz-Salazar

EP-TBS-49-Genomic diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis from human lung resections reveals a high degree of multiclonal infections in a high-burden MDR-TB setting
Miguel Moreno-Molina

EP-TBS-50-Pathogen genome sequencing to guide treatment regimen designs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
Hans-Peter Grobbel

EP-TBS-51-An evolutionary functional genomics approach identifies novel candidate regions involved in isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Victoria Furió

EP-TBS-52-Antibiotic Resistance Profile Determination Using Whole Genome Sequencing
Ryan Howard

EP-TBS-53-Rapid genomic drug resistance prediction from clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis specimens using amplicon based deep sequencing based on Deeplex-MycTB
Stefan Niemann

EP-TBS-54-Multi-resistant tuberculosis and HIV infection in Kinshasa: 2011-2018. DRC “Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects”
Nicole ANSHAMBI

EP-TBS-55-Long Read DNA Sequencing of XDR/MDR Tuberculosis Samples to Investigate Factors Leading to Resistance and Virulence
Michael Harris

EP-TBS-56-Genome-wide detection of epistasis in antibiotic resistant M. tuberculosis
Anna Green

EP-TBS-57-Population structure, biogeography and transmissibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Luca Freschi

EP-TBS-58-Safety and Efficacy of an MDR-TB All-oral Short-course Regimen in China: An Preliminary Analysis of the MDR-Chi clinical trial
Liang Fu

EP-TBS-59-Drug exposure and minimum inhibitory concentration predict pulmonary tuberculosis treatment response
Xubin Zheng

EP-TBS-60-A novel therapeutic vaccine against multi-drug resistant tuberculosis by T cell-immunity in phase 1 clinical trial.
Masaji Okada

EP-TBS-61-Improving the safety of TB therapy with novel diagnostic biomarkers of liver toxicity – a study in UK and Ugandan patients
Derek Sloan

EP-TBS-62-Tuberculosis meningitis mouse model
Tuhina Gupta

EP-TBS-63-Pharmacokinetics of the three-drug fixed-dose dispersible tablet in children
Aziza Pakhlavonova

EP-TBS-64-Does BCG Vaccination protect against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Vietnamese schoolchildren?
Puck Pelzer

EP-TBS-65-Time to positivity as a surrogate biomarker of time to culture conversion
Belén P. Solans

EP-TBS-66-Use of the contact management register to identify those with Active and Latent TB, Kenya, Jan-March 2020
RHODA POLA

EP-TBS-67-Predicting Efficacy Outcome of Nine Tuberculosis Drugs in Phase 2a First-in-patients Studies
Nan Zhang

EP-TBS-69-Predicting optimal treatment durations for tuberculosis patients: a risk stratification algorithm and clinical simulation tool
Marjorie Imperial

EP-TBS-70-Adverse Drug Reactions in MDR TB Patients on Category IV Regimen in Western Odisha
SUMAN KUMAR JAGATY

EP-TBS-71-The effect of antiretroviral therapy and preventive tuberculosis therapy with anti-TB drugs on the duration of TB remission in HIV-infected patients
Igor Medvinskiy

EP-TBS-72-A Urine Colorimetric Assay for Levofloxacin Concentrations and Optimized Regimen Development
Prakruti Rao

EP-TBS-73-Development and Application of an Integrated Biomarker - Clinical Endpoint Tool for Late Stage TB Regimen Development and Clinical Trial Design
Marjorie Imperial

EP-TBS-74-Leveraging Neural Networks and Imaging Experts in Loops for Automated Tuberculosis Screening Using Chest Radiographs in Population Screening Programs to ensure efficient workflows.
Amit Kharat

EP-TBS-75-A model for the integration of traditional medicine into conventional medicine for the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB) in Zimbabwe
Winnet Enerita Chipato

EP-TBS-76-Point-of-Care Saliva Assay for Levofloxacin Concentrations and Personalized Dosing in Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Tanzania
Sagal Mohamed

EP-TBS-77-PBPK Model Informed Prediction to Evaluate the Effect of Renal Impairment and OCT genotypes on the Ethambutol Disposition
Yumi Park

EP-TBS-78-Development of Population Pharmacokinetic Model of the First-line anti-TB drugs in Korean patients with TB for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Guided Dose Adjustment
Yumi Park

EP-TBS-79-Model Informed Personalized Dosing Algorithm Development for TB Therapy in Center for Personalized Precision Medicine (cPMTb)
Yumi Park

EP-TBS-80-Classifying adherence trajectories: an innovative tool for regimen development
Stephanie Law

EP-TBS-81-Predicting pretomanid penetration into patient lesions of tuberculosis
Jacqueline Ernest

EP-TBS-82-Rifapentine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: murine and human models to identify optimal dosing for treatment of latent M. tuberculosis infection
Jacqueline Ernest

EP-TBS-83-SLCO1B1 and SLC10A1 polymorphism and plasma rifampin concentrations in patients with co-morbidity tuberculosis-diabetes mellitus in Baja California, Mexico
Ricardo Perea-Jacobo

EP-TBS-84-Individual-Level Data Meta-Analysis of Adverse Events from Clinical Trials of Drug Sensitive Tuberculosis Treatment Regimens
Leah Jarlsberg

EP-TBS-85-G-clamp-inspired ligands and their effects on G-quadruplexes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Egor Shitikov

EP-TBS-86-Prediction of early bacterial activity (EBA) of bedaquiline in tuberculosis
Federico Romano

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Community Connect
Start, Stop and Continue: what needs to change so that communities are better supported to lead the charge on TB and co-morbidities during COVID-19
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Start, Stop and Continue: what needs to change so that communities are better supported to lead the charge on TB and co-morbidities during COVID-19
Available in English and French
This session takes place on Zoom.us

This practical and interactive debate will discuss solutions to how governments, the UN system and donors could work closer with community -led organisations and groups so that communities are better supported to lead the charge on TB and co-morbidities in the time of COVID-19. Session participants will discuss practical recommendations on what needs to start, stop and continue to make this happen.

Chair: 
Dr Khuat Thi Hai Oanh, Executive Director, NGO ‘SCDI, Vietnam, Southern Civil Society Organisations Alternate, Civil Society Engagement Mechanism for UHC2030 

Speakers: 
1. Ashim Chowla Chief Executive , Alliance India HIV/AIDS Alliance 
2. Dr Coulibaly OFFIA Madiarra, Executive Director of Alliance Cote D'Ivoire 
3. Andrey Klepikov, Executive Director, Alliance for Public Health, Ukraine 
4. Zahedul Islam
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OA-01-TB preventive therapy in HIV
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OA-01-TB preventive therapy in HIV
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11:00 - 11:05: Introduction


11:05 - 11:13: OA-01-500-21-Isoniazid preventive therapy interruptions and TB among people living with HIV in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is a critical prevention intervention for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in high tuberculosis (TB) burden settings, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. However, isoniazid shortages result in frequent IPT interruptions among PLHIV. We analysed data from the integrated HIV/AIDS project in Haut Katangato to understand potential impact of isoniazid interruptions.

Ibou Thior

11:13 - 11:21: OA-01-501-21-The effect of antenatal isoniazid preventive therapy on birth outcomes in western Kenya Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces risk for tuberculosis (TB) disease in people living with HIV and AIDS. However, there is conflicting data on maternal IPT safety in pregnancy related to birth outcomes. We evaluated programmatic data in Kisumu, Kenya, to assess birth outcomes among women with, and without, antenatal IPT exposure.

Elizabeth Quincer

11:21 - 11:29: OA-01-502-21-Birth outcomes of pregnant women exposed to isoniazid preventive therapy Tuberculosis (TB) is associated with increased risk of death and morbidity among HIV-positive pregnant women. Antiretroviral therapy and isoniazid preventive therapy can reduce mortality rates among HIV-positive pregnant women in high burden settings. Findings suggest that IPT can be safely used during the second and third trimester of pregnancy.

Sikhethiwe Masuku

11:29 - 11:37: OA-01-503-21-Isoniazid preventive therapy added to ART to prevent TB disease: an individual participant data meta-analysis Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We conducted an individual, participant data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to estimate the effect of IPT with antiretroviral therapy to prevent TB and death among PLHIV across subgroups by sex, CD4 count and immune sensitisation to TB.

Jennifer Ross

11:37 - 11:45: OA-01-504-21-Impact of TB preventive therapy on TB incidence among persons living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya (2015–2019) People living with HIV (PLHIV) have a high tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity rate. TB preventive treatment (TPT) significantly reduces TB incidence among PLHIV. We analysed five-year, HIV programme data to determine TB incidence and relative risk among PLHIV who did or did not receive TPT.

Herman Weyenga

11:45 - 11:53: OA-01-505-21-Comparing IsoScreen results and self-reported isoniazid preventative therapy adherence among HIV-positive pregnant women in South Africa This abstract describes a comparison of self-reported, isoniazid preventative therapy adherence (IPT) and adherence as measured by the IsoScreen urine test, among HIV-positive women who initiated IPT during the iThamby study, at six sites in three provinces of South Africa.  The IsoScreen test was conducted across multiple study visits.

Tebogo Sole

11:53 - 12:01: OA-01-506-21-Suboptimal adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy using urine biomarker assessment in children living with HIV: association with viral suppression and age Children living with HIV (CLHIV) are more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease. With optimal adherence, isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the risk of TB by 60%. We assessed adherence to IPT in a prospective cohort of 100 CLHIV using caregiver or child self-report pill counts and urine INH biomarkers.

Dickens Onyango

12:01 - 12:12: Q&A


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OA-02-Finding a needle in the haystack: where are children with TB?
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OA-02-Finding a needle in the haystack: where are children with TB?
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11:00 - 11:05: Introduction


11:05 - 11:13: OA-02-507-21-Barriers to contact investigation among children: experience from Lagos, Nigeria The study explored the barriers to effective contact investigation among children from the health workers' perspective and found the need to address stigma, while also supporting health workers financially, to conduct contact investigation of index tuberculosis cases.

Oluremilekun Kusimo

11:13 - 11:21: OA-02-508-21-Low-level care facilities as entry points for peadiatric TB screening and case finding: a stepped-wedge randomised controlled study Using a stepped-wedge, randomised controlled study design, we enrolled children under five years, who had presumed TB, in health facilities in Cameroon and Kenya. We demonstrate high proportions of children diagnosed with presumptive and confirmed TB at lower-level care facilities, suggesting the utility of decentralised active case finding.

Rose Otieno-Masaba

11:21 - 11:29: OA-02-509-21-A simple clinical score for predicting active TB when same day microbiological testing is unavailable We developed and validated a simple clinical risk score for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis among adults presenting to primary healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa. The score (ranging from 1-10) requires only readily accessible information in resource-limited settings. We identify score cutoffs where TB diagnosis has a high benefit-risk ratio when same day microbiological testing is unavailable.

Yeonsoo Baik

11:29 - 11:37: OA-02-510-21-Key clinical features among children under five with a presumptive or confirmed TB diagnosis in sub-Saharan Africa We described the clinical presentation of 203 children, aged under five, with a presumptive or confirmed tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms overall. Adenitis, oedema and acute malnutrition were more frequent in children diagnosed with TB. Assessing malnutrition status should be a key component of paediatric TB screening.

Lise Denoeud-Ndam

11:37 - 11:45: OA-02-511-21-Using a mobile application to improve presumptive TB identification in children in western Kenya Tuberculosis (TB) is under-recognised in children globally. To evaluate the role of mobile health technology in facilitating paediatric TB screening, we implemented a presumptive paediatric TB mobile application in a rural hospital in western Kenya. Following roll-out, there was an increase in the proportion of children identified in presumptive TB registers.

Dylan Peterson

11:45 - 11:53: OA-02-512-21-Protecting our children from active TB disease: expanding TB preventive therapy in nine sub-Saharan countries Using a pre- and post-intervention design, we demonstrate a significant increase in the initiation of tuberculosis preventive therapy (TPT), following the introduction of intensified household contact investigation and linkage to care for children eligible for TPT, in routine clinical settings across nine sub-Saharan countries.

Jean-Francois Lemaire

11:53 - 12:01: OA-02-513-21-Challenges and solutions in the recruitment of children to a multidrug-resistant TB prevention trial: early experiences from TB-CHAMP TB-CHAMP is a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of fluoroquinolone preventive therapy in young children exposed to an adult with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Recruitment to randomised clinical trials can be challenging and lessons learned from TB CHAMP will be relevant to other current, and future, research efforts.

Susan Purchase

12:01 - 12:20: Q&A


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OA-03-Optimising lung health beyond TB
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OA-03-Optimising lung health beyond TB
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11:00 - 11:05: Introduction


11:05 - 11:13: OA-03-514-21-Clinical predictors of outpatient child pneumonia mortality and development of a severity of illness score for outpatient care in rural Bangladesh – a multisite study Identifying children at higher risk of pneumonia mortality during outpatient care may improve outcomes. We explored clinical predictors of child pneumonia mortality and developed a predictive model applicable to outpatient care in rural Bangladesh.

Eric D McCollum

11:13 - 11:21: OA-03-515-21-Pneumococcal serotype epidemiology in Botswana following the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine We endeavoured to describe temporal trends in pneumococcal serotype colonisation among children in Botswana following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13). Understanding how the introduction of PCV-13 affects pneumococcal serotype epidemiology is essential to optimising the next generation of pneumococcal vaccines and reducing childhood mortality.

Sweta M. Patel

11:21 - 11:29: OA-03-516-21-Mycobacteria and other acid fast organism among presumptive pulmonary TB patients in Kaduna state, Nigeria Tuberculosis is a leading public health problem in Nigeria. Hence, there is a need for continuous characterisation of mycobacteria in order to obtain current data that will aid ongoing diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to phenotypically characterise mycobacteria isolates recovered from patients with smear-positive samples.

Isiyaku Ahmadu

11:29 - 11:37: OA-03-517-21-A novel quantitative tool for rapid monitoring of Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary disease treatment response Mycobacterium abscessus is the most common, rapid growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) causing NTM pulmonary disease (PD). A quantitative treatment monitoring tool has been developed to follow M. abscessus PD treatment response. This treatment monitoring tool does not require sample decontamination, with results available on the same day.

Daniela Alferes de Lima

11:37 - 11:45: OA-03-518-21-How does exposure to fine particulate matter in Malawi vary by gender, exposure source and cooking characteristics? Fine grain data from an ethnography-linked exposure study In low-income settings such as Malawi, continued use of biomass fuels for cooking causes frequent exposure to high levels of air pollution, strongly associated with a range of cardiorespiratory pathologies. We use personal exposure monitoring to describe differential PM2.5 exposures in this setting by gender, exposure source and cooking features.

Sepeedeh Saleh

11:45 - 11:53: OA-03-519-21-Pulmonary function testing and predictive equations in a healthy adult population in Mbeya, Tanzania Despite the increasing importance of spirometry in research projects as well as in clinical medicine, there is a lack of lung function reference values available for the African population. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 343 adults, in Mbeya, Tanzania, to obtain local predictive equations and compared them to GLI.

Rebekka Wenzel

11:53 - 12:01: OA-03-520-21-Availability of diagnostic services and essential medicines for non-communicable respiratory diseases in African countries The study aimed to explore the availability of diagnostic spirometry and essential medicines for asthma and COPD in African countries. Data was collected by a questionnaire given to attendees at PATS MECOR and IMPALA meeting. Primary data on availability was gathered and reasons behind the challenges of non-availability were explored.

Catherine Plum

12:01 - 12:09: OA-03-521-21-Chronic lung diseases remain under-prioritised in Africa despite their growing burden: findings from a lung health policy analysis Despite the growing burden of chronic lung diseases (CLDs) in Africa, investment in research, policy and programmes is lacking. Understanding regional and national-level lung health policy environments (via policy desk review and key informant interviews) is critical to inform generation, and effective, uptake of relevant and responsive lung health research.

Emma Heneine

12:09 - 12:20: Q&A


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OA-04-A holistic approach: experiences from Europe
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OA-04-A holistic approach: experiences from Europe
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11:00 - 11:05: Introduction


11:05 - 11:13: OA-04-522-21-“You have to adjust your whole life.” Interconnected, dynamic influences on adherence to treatment for TB among adults in three UK cities Non-adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment has significant implications for individual patients and for efforts to end TB. A better understanding of how factors affecting the non/adherence intersect can guide development of patient-centred, cost-effective measures to improve treatment taking. We report on in-depth interviews with individuals on TB treatment in the United Kingdom.

Aaron S Karat

11:13 - 11:21: OA-04-523-21-Doubling TB preventive treatment enrolment rates among people living with HIV in Ukraine Under the United States Agency for International Development funded Challenge TB (CTB) mechanism, PATH used a data-driven, evidence-grounded advocacy approach to shift the management of tuberculosis (TB) preventive treatment (TPT) services for people living with HIV (PLHIV), in Donetsk Oblast, from TB doctors to HIV specialists. This shift led to a doubling of PLHIV initiated on TPT.

Olga Pavlova

11:21 - 11:29: OA-04-524-21-Providing incentives and enablers to support people suffering with TB completing their treatment in Belgium: a successful approach In Belgium, tuberculosis (TB) treatment completion remains challenging, especially among the most vulnerable groups, such as the homeless or people living in irregular situations. Since 2015, a joint project between the Belgium TB Programme and non-governmental organisation, has looked to provide incentives and enablers, including shelters, to improve treatment outcomes.

Lilas Weber

11:29 - 11:37: OA-04-525-21-Video observed treatment for TB patients in Belarus In Belarus, with the Global Fund’s support, a pilot video-observed treatment (VOT) project was expanded across the country in October 2016. VOT for tuberculosis patients in Belarus, used at programmatic level, demonstrates high levels of patient acceptability and excellent treatment outcomes.

Alena Skrahina

11:37 - 11:45: OA-04-526-21-ART prescription by TB doctors in Odeska oblast, Ukraine: successful model of integration of services for patients with TB-HIV co-infection In Ukraine, only HIV specialists are permitted to prescribe antiretroviral treatment (ART), which leads to delayed initiation and low ART coverage among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The United States Agency for International Development funds the Challenge TB Project and its support has enabled TB doctors to prescribe ART. This resulted in a significant increase of ART coverage and reduction of ART initiation delays.

Olga Pavlova

11:45 - 11:53: OA-04-527-21-Results of pilot of integrated diagnosis of TB and hepatitis C among HIV-positive incarcerated individuals using GeneXpert in Dnipropetrovska oblast of Ukraine Usage of GeneXpert opportunities as an integrated patient-oriented approach for TB and hepatitis C virus diagnosis, and HIV viral load determination, among detainees and prisoners in Dnipro Penal Institution №4, in Ukraine, greatly reduces turnaround times and improves efficiencies while also increasing access to services for prisoners and detainees.

Svitlana Leontieva

11:53 - 12:01: OA-04-528-21-COVID-19-TB and multidrug-resistant TB co-infection in Belarus Belarus, a high burden multidrug-resistant TB country, had a total of 22,973 confirmed COVID-19 cases on May 10th. Measures to monitor COVID-19-TB patients prospectively, in the countrywide cohort, were developed. Our data will help create a global database for the subsequent generation of evidence-based recommendations to combat both infections. 

Alena Skrahina

12:01 - 12:20: Q&A


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SP-01-Strengthening evidence on optimal treatments for multidrug-resistant TB: approaches to studying timing and duration.
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SP-01-Strengthening evidence on optimal treatments for multidrug-resistant TB: approaches to studying timing and duration.
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Treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is characterised by prolonged duration and frequent toxicity. While injectable-free and shortened regimens represent enormous improvements, critical knowledge gaps remain about optimal treatment for MDR-TB. Among them are the comparative effectiveness of all-oral shortened regimens; the exposure-toxicity relationship in dynamic multidrug regimens; the optimal duration of treatment and of individual drugs and the choice and timing of endpoints used for each. This symposium will highlight challenges in the study of these questions, both in the clinical trial and observational study settings, and will offer practical approaches for improving valid inference.

11:00 - 11:05: Introduction

11:05 - 11:15: Follow-up duration in study of treatment of different durations: bias and implicationsA major concern about shortened regimens is possible increased recurrence (relapse and reinfection) after treatment completion. Documented, systematic post-treatment follow-up is critical to accurately assess efficacy of shortened regimens compared to longer control regimens.  Failure to systematically follow patients in observational or experimental studies can result in underestimated recurrence after shortened regimens. Follow-up time for equivalent durations after treatment completion (e.g. six months after a nine-month regimen and after an 18-month control) can result in the same overestimate, which can bias the effect estimate. For that reason, guidance recommends defining total follow-up duration from the point of randomisation, e.g. 24 months after randomisation. Effectively, this results in 15 months post-treatment follow-up for a nine-month regimen and six months for an 18-month regimen. This could overestimate recurrence in shortened regimens relative to controls and lead to bias. This talk will explore these biases and their implications for guidelines and programmatic decision making.
Gerry Davies

11:15 - 11:25: Short, long, or somewhere in between? Designing clinical trials to identify the optimal duration of therapyClinical development of new regimens for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) involves not only the selection of the right drugs and doses, but also a choice of the optimal duration of therapy that maximises efficacy, while not exposing patients to a longer duration of potentially toxic drugs than necessary. Different approaches have been considered to generate evidence to support this choice with varying success. bedaquiline and delamanid have been evaluated in clinical trials and approved for the treatment of TB, but we are still learning the optimal duration of each. In this presentation, I will talk about the latest clinical trial designs that are being applied in drug-susceptible TB and drug-resistant TB randomised trials to efficiently identify optimal durations of new regimens. I will talk about the duration-randomised design which involves modelling of the duration-response relationship, proving a case study of how this has been applied in a planned TB trial.
Patrick Phillips

11:25 - 11:35: Does prolonged use of bedaquiline improve treatment outcomes? An application of methods to study optimal treatment duration using observational dataIn observational research, a common approach to studying the effect of treatment duration entails categorising patients according to the duration of their regimen (e.g. <15 months; 15-20 months, >20 months) and comparing the frequency of treatment success in patients with longer and shorter regimens. Results derived from this approach may be biased in favour of longer treatment because patients who survive longer can receive longer treatment. On the other hand, results may be biased against longer treatment if patients receive longer treatments due to a slower treatment response or treatment-emergent toxicities that then limit subsequent treatment options. To overcome these potential biases, we employ an alternative approach that emulates a randomised trial in which each individual is randomly assigned to a treatment duration. We provide an illustrative example in which we compare the effects of bedaquiline for 24 weeks, 48 weeks or the entire duration of treatment on end-of-treatment outcomes.
Molly Franke

11:35 - 11:45: Methodological challenges in analysis and reporting of sputum culture conversion endpoints in observational treatment cohortsIn observational multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment cohorts, time-to-sputum culture conversion (SCC) or SCC at specified time-points since treatment initiation (e.g. six months), are commonly used as interim endpoints for end-of-treatment outcome. While World Health Organization definitions for SCC exist, there is substantial heterogeneity in how these definitions are operationalised given varying data collection practices, monitoring schedules and laboratory procedures across cohorts. We will discuss the potential for selection bias due to the use of prolonged periods to establish patients’ baseline culture in SCC cohorts. We will describe the current state defining baseline sputum culture in the literature and recommend best practices for avoiding or resolving this bias.
Carly Rodriguez

11:45 - 11:55: How best to analyse and report adverse events occurring during multidrug-resistant TB treatment?Is the new regimen safe? This is a priority question in the evaluation of new multidrug-resistant TB regimens. Adverse events reporting is critical to evaluate regimen safety. However, drawing conclusions from observational adverse event data is challenging in the context of dynamic regimens. Important considerations include causality attribution in the context of regimens with multiple drug stops and stops; determining the dates of event onset and drug exposure; and adverse event recurrences. In this talk, we will detail methodological challenges to the analyses and reporting of adverse event data and provide illustrative examples using data from the End TB observational study. 
Mathieu Bastard

11:55 - 12:20: Q&A session

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